Chapter 2: functional neuroanatomy and the evolution of the nervous system. Anatomical directions and planes of sections: lets look at 4 legged animals first, structures located towards the head end rostral. Ex: the head of the dog is rostral to its shoulders: structures located towards the tail end caudal. Ex: the dogs ears are caudal to its nose. In a 4 legged animal, the neuraxis is parallel to the ground. Dorsal part of animals brain is in line with the dorsal parts of the spinal cord. If two structures are ipsilateral, they are both on the same side of the midline. Ex: my left arm and left leg are ipsilateral to one another. If structures are on opposite sides of the midline -> contralateral. Ex: my right arm and my left leg are contralateral: structures close to the midline are referred to as medial, structures to the side of the midline are called lateral.