PSYB65 Textbook notesChapter 7: Memory 2
•Working Memory: contains information that is going to be acted on or used in some fashion
(remember where you parked your car after watching a game).
Can retrieve information from long-term memory (remembering an old friend's phone
Central Executive: primary component responsible controlling attention and supervising
the two “slave” subsystem. The 2 subsystems are responsible for manipulating different
types of information.
Phonological loop: 1 of the subsystem responsible for manipulating linguistic information.
It is the subsystem that is best understood so far.
Visuospatial sketchpad (VSSP): 1 of the subsystem responsible for manipulating
visuospatial information like mental imagery and spacial locations.
The Phonological Loop
•2 components: phonological store and an inner speech (articulatory control process).
•Phonological store temporarily holds linguistic information for no more than 2 seconds, unless
it is “refreshed” by the inner speech.
•Articulatory control process is used when written words are converted into the phonological
sounds of language, thereby producing inner speech.
•Dual-task paradigm is used to investigate the phonological loop. The form of this paradigm
used is called articulatory suppression works kind of like trying to carry a phone
conversation AND speaking to someone in person at the same time (you often miss important
parts of the conversation).
•The storage capacity of the loop is limited by the number of sounds that a participant can make
in a brief period of time.
The Visuospatial Sketchpad (VSSP)
•2 subunits: 1 responsible for mental imagery, and one for spatial information.
•Information can either come from the environment (visual perception) or from mental imagery.
•Just like the phonological loop, information in VSSP are temporary, and can be disrupted by an
•Working memory for spacial locations is separable from that of imagery.
The central execute
•the ability to switch among strategies to find the best solution to the problem.
•Able to allocate attention so that, more than one task can be done at one time to shut down
competing activity when situations require more attention (walking to class while thinking hard,
and ends up at the class without remembering how you got there)
•supervisory attentional system: involved in the planning of actions and in producing multiple
actions that are performed relatively independent of each other.
•Hayling test, and Brixton test are used to test supervisory attentional system.
Where in the brain is working memory located?
•Phonological loop Broca's area, temporal lobes, left posterior parietal cortex, left premotor
area, left supplementary motor area. (left hemisphere)
•VSSP parietal lobes, (right hemisphere) right dorsolateral prefrontal areas, right premotor
areas, and right presupplementary motor areas.