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Chapter 1

PSYB65H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Catamenial Epilepsy, Anatomy Of The Cerebellum, Microcephaly

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Ted Petit

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Main Teaching Points:
Module 1.1: Introduction to Neuropsychology
1.The 10% Myth
2.What is Neuropsychology
3.Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology
4.The Mind-Body Problem
Module 1.2: The Recent History of Neuropsychology
1.Cataloguing the Effects of Lesions
2.Focus on the Neuron
3.The Brain Mappers
4.Functional Neurosurgery
5.The Paradigm Shift in Neuropsychology
Module 1.1 Introduction to Neuropsychology
The 10% Myth
Myth: Humans use only 10% of their brain
Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens & Karl Lashley animals were able to perform basic
function after almost 90% of their brains were damaged
What is Neuropsychology?
Neuropsychology the study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain
Assumes that an individuals behaviour is at least in part the result of the activity in
the brain
Types of Neuropsychologists:
1.Clinical Neuropsychology the branch of neuropsychology concerned with psychological
assessment, management, and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury
2.Experimental Neuropsychology the branch of neuropsychology concerned with how
human behaviour arises from brain activity, which includes explaining how patterns of
behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural
Aka. Cognitive Neuropsychology / Cognitive Neuroscience
Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology
A.Human thoughts and behaviours were not always attributed to the brain
oAll matter was composed of four elements: fire, air, water, earth
oCardiac / Cardiocentric Hypothesis: Heart was the source of human
oHeart is normally very active and warm source of thought and sensation
oBrain served as a radiator, cooling the blood

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B.Cephalocentric Hypothesis / Brain Hypothesis
oHippocrates / Galen
oBrain is responsible for human behaviour
The Mind-Body Problem
Rene Descartes
Reflexive Theory of the control of behaviour the flow of animal spirits through valvules
within nervous tissue filaments
Reflexive behaviour caused by external stimuli (animal spirits)
Accounted for some involuntary behaviours (withdrawing ones hand from a hot
stimulus) but could not account for voluntary behaviour
Believed that voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a
rational, decision-making soul
Pineal gland was single and surrounded by CSF
Cavities of CSF were reservoirs for the animal spirits necessary for action voluntary
action would produce small movements of the pineal gland, resulting in the release of
animal spirits throughout the body and producing movement of the body
Influenced by technologies of that time: hydraulics
Dualism the mind and body are separate but interacting entities
Mind and body do interact in a causal fashion without specifying how
Mind and body function in parallel without interacting
Mind can affect the body but the body cannot affect the mind
Monism mind and body are unitary
Module 1.2 The Recent History of Neuropsychology
Year 1990 1990s would be the decade of the brain
Neuropsychology draws from a number of very established disciplines: anthropology, biology,
physiology, neurology
Cataloging the Effects of Lesions
A.Contributors to Passive Role of Brain
1. Jean-Cesar Lagallois
oLesioning the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathing
discovery of respiratory center within the medulla
oFirst widely accepted function to be localized within the brain
2.Charles Bell + Francois Magendie
oStudied the nerves that exited the spinal cord dorsal roots (nerves that leave
the spinal cord on the back of the spinal cord) had sensory functions; ventral
roots (nerves that leave the spinal cord on the front) were responsible for motor

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Functional Segregation of spinal cord set stage to examine whether or
not the brain was also organized into separate sensory and motor
B.Functional and Anatomical Segregation
1.Franz Joseph Gall
oStated that there were 27 distinct cognitive abilities (faculties) that could be
localized on the cortex of the human brain were poorly defined faculties: love
of friends, wisdom, acquisitiveness, destructiveness, etc
oCognitive skills, such as mathematical ability, memory for words, and spoken
language, were mediated by separate areas of the brain
oBelieved that the cortex behaved like muscles, in that increased size of an area
was associated with increased function phrenology
Increase in size could result in a deformation of the skull which then
could be measured empirically by using a technique called cranioscopy
Phrenology the measurements of the skull and pronouncement on
2.Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens
oStrong critic against phrenology phrenology was at best subjective and that all
analyses were performed post hoc
oFirm believer of empirical method lesioning techniques to study corresponding
effects on behaviour
Cerebellum coordinated movement
Medulla vital functions
Observed that sometimes following lesions, function may be restored
oEquipotentiality cortex functioned as a whole and that there was no
functional specialization within the cortex
3.Friedrich Goltz
oBelieved in Flourens equipotentiality performed a number of
experiments involving the removal of the cortex in dogs and cats and observed that only the size of the
lesion, not the location of the lesion, affected the behaviour of the nonhuman animal
4.David Ferrier behavioural observations of decorticate dogs
and monkeys were inconsistent with the position of cortical equipotentiality
oSuggested that the results of the lesion experiments were
consistent with the localization of sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex
5.Gustav Fritsh & Eduard Hitzig
oDemonstrated that the frontal cortex of the dog was essential
for the production of normal movement
oOverturned theory of cortical equipotentiality
Gall was right but for wrong reason
Goltz and Fluorens used right techniques but came to the
wrong conclusions
6.Paul Broca
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