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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

18 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Chapter Ten-Spatial Ability
What Is Spatial Ability?
Spatial ability: process position, direction or movement of objects or points in space
oi.e. notice orientation of object e.g. handle of mug pointing toward or away from
you
olook at shoe and decide whether for right or left foot
space is multifaceted construct
oincludes real space (what you can sense right now) and imagined space (space
that you can think about even though you cannot directly experience it right now)
spatial ability has six discrete basic components/individual skills
otargeting- how well you can throw an object at a target
ospatial orientation- how well you can recognize items even when they are
placed in diff orientations/directions
ospatial location memory: how well you can remember the location of objects
ospatial visualization: how well you can imagine how well pieces of an object
would go together
odisembedding: how well you can find figures that are hidden w/in other
pictures
ospatial perception: how well you can determine where horizontal or vertical is
in the real world even if you are given distracting information
Hemispheric Representation of Space
left hemisphere of brain: specialized for language processing
right hemisphere of brain: specialized for spatial processing
much evidence that supports this position but there are exceptions:
olesions to left hemisphere or bilateral damage results in difficulties w spatial
perception
the most basic spatial ability: ability to localize a point in space
www.notesolution.com
oto localize a point in space, need to know where the point is absolutely and the
relative position of that point
oto know whether point occupies the same location as another point requires
depth perception
oneurologically normal people can identify location of dot more readily when it
occurs in left visual field right hemisphere
left visual field advantage for dot location: superiority of right hemisphere
for processing spatial location
oright hemisphere (esp right prefrontal cortex): recall of spatial location
information
Depth perception: ability to determine relative position of object
oVery basic spatial ability
oDivided into two types:
1) Local depth perception: ability to use detailed features of objects point
by point to assess relative position
i.e. in looking at this page, look at relative position of these words
w corners of book to determine which corner of book was closer to
you
determination of which object is in front of another: left visual field
advantage in normals
both right and left hemisphere lesions disrupt local depth
perception
Global depth perception: ability to use difference between information
reaching each eye to compute entire visual scene
Random dot stereograms or Magic Eye pictures
Production of 3D image: brain computes differences in images
presented to two eyes and fuses these images to produce depth
b/c no obvious features in pictures, local depth perception cues
cannot be responsible for this effect
www.notesolution.com
right hemisphere better at determining global depth perception
line orientation: ability to localize a line and identify its orientation
oe.g. differentiate between letters d and p
oright hemisphere advantage for both tactile + visual assessment of line
orientation
oif lines can be described verbally (i.e. horizontal line, vertical line)-> left
hemisphere advantage
most of what we do in the world is more complex than simply judging relative position of
line or its orientation
often have to determine spatial relationship between points on the line, lines or objects
determinations of spatial relationships between objects relies on:
oability to determine whether or not an item shares spatial properties w another-
> object geometry
oability to reconstruct previously viewed items
I.e. study of spatial properties of items: focus on judgements of similarity between
curved lines
oRight hemisphere advantage for these types of judgements when using visual or
tactile modalities
Ability to reconstruct previously viewed items tends to rely on having people reconstruct
complex, novel figures from memory
oDecisions regarding whether or not complex novel figure had been viewed
previously more accurate when figure presented in left visual field
oRight hemisphere is superior at task
When objects move, some parts of objects that were visible are obscured whereas some
parts of object that were obscured are now visible
oAbility to identify moving object: ability to track object and to identify that object
when it is rotated
oTracking an object: ability to determine where an object is currently and where it
will be momentarily
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter Ten-Spatial Ability What Is Spatial Ability? Spatial ability: process position, direction or movement of objects or points in space o i.e. notice orientation of object e.g. handle of mug pointing toward or away from you o look at shoe and decide whether for right or left foot space is multifaceted construct o includes real space (what you can sense right now) and imagined space (space that you can think about even though you cannot directly experience it right now) spatial ability has six discrete basic componentsindividual skills o targeting- how well you can throw an object at a target o spatial orientation- how well you can recognize items even when they are placed in diff orientationsdirections o spatial location memory: how well you can remember the location of objects o spatial visualization: how well you can imagine how well pieces of an object would go together o disembedding: how well you can find figures that are hidden win other pictures o spatial perception: how well you can determine where horizontal or vertical is in the real world even if you are given distracting information Hemispheric Representation of Space left hemisphere of brain: specialized for language processing right hemisphere of brain: specialized for spatial processing much evidence that supports this position but there are exceptions: o lesions to left hemisphere or bilateral damage results in difficulties w spatial perception the most basic spatial ability: ability to localize a point in space www.notesolution.com o to localize a point in space, need to know where the point is absolutely and the relative position of that point o to know whether point occupies the same location as another point requires depth perception o neurologically normal people can identify location of dot more readily when it occurs in left visual field right hemisphere left visual field advantage for dot location: superiority of right hemisphere for processing spatial location o right hemisphere (esp right prefrontal cortex): recall of spatial location information Depth perception: ability to determine relative position of object o Very basic spatial ability o Divided into two types: 1) Local depth perception: ability to use detailed features of objects point by point to assess relative position i.e. in looking at this page, look at relative position of these words w corners of book to determine which corner of book was closer to you determination of which object is in front of another: left visual field advantage in normals both right and left hemisphere lesions disrupt local depth perception Global depth perception: ability to use difference between information reaching each eye to compute entire visual scene Random dot stereograms or Magic Eye pictures Production of 3D image: brain computes differences in images presented to two eyes and fuses these images to produce depth bc no obvious features in pictures, local depth perception cues cannot be responsible for this effect www.notesolution.com
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