Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYC12H3 (300)
Chapter 2

PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Social Rejection, Mass Number, Hypothesis


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Chapter
2

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Chapter 2: The Role of Situational Cues in Signaling and Maintaining Stereotype Threat
Initial aim: examine factors suppressing the intellectual performance of black students and
women in math, science, and engineering
o Particular interest b/c both ere underperforming in the classroom relative to their
intellectual abilities
o Academic ability and preparation = unlikely explanation
Stereotype threat: A person in context
Stereo threat research shifted the paradigm
o Rather than culture or lack of preparation, might be features of the situation
o When situational cues make a stereotype salient and relevant to one’s actions, the
resulting psychological pressure to disprove the stereotype might impede academic
performance
How stereo threat is produced & sustained through situational cues in the environment
o Meaning(s) in people derive from situational cues
o Affects whether they become vulnerable to or protected against stero threat
o Situational cues can create an atmosphere of identity safety alleviating stereotype
threat effects
The role of Cues and Vigilance in Stereotype Threat
Person has multiple social identities (gender, age, race etc)
When situational cues signal identity’s value in a setting, that particular group membership
becomes more salient & a vigilance process is initiated
During the vigilance phase, attention is directed to other situational cues to determine whether
the identity may be a liability
If cues disconfirm , vigilance relaxes BUT if situational cues confirm vigilance increases
Math, science, and engineering (MSE)
o Study: male & female MSE majors watched a video advertising a prestigious MSE
summer conference
Gender ration either 3 men & 1 woman OR balanced ratio
o Measured participants’ psychological & physiological vigilance
Women who watched the 3:1 video reported less feeling of belonging
Were highly vigilant compared to women who watched gender balanced video
These women remembered more details of video & had faster <3 rate and
sweatier palms
They rmbd more MSE related cues 9textbooks, science journals, posters etc
THUS MSE women engage in a vigilance process deploying attention to
situational cues within the video & in their local enviro to determine the
value of their gender identity in the MSE conference setting
Indiv’s differ in the intensity they engage in vigilance process
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o Some are particularly sensitive to identity-based rejection or highly conscious of stigma
associated with their identity
o Ppl have diff thresholds, some req just one strong situational cue while o/s might
experience threat only when multiple cues converge
o Certain situational cues= less threatening for ppl not personally invested in particular
domains (eg: women who avoid MSE)
o People more identified with their stereotyped social groups more vulnerable to setero
threats
Vigilance processes shape people’s experiences in the future steering attention toward similar
situational cues in new enviros
Stereo threat grounded in situational cues
Situational Cues in Academic Settings:
Majority of studies examine women’s math performance or racial minorities academic
performance
Two cues: diagnosticity of a test & relevance of a stereotype to test performance produce threat
among groups negatively stereotyped
Diagnosticity makes it clear that one’s intelligence and competence is on the line and will be
evaluated
Studies that evoke Stereo relevance oft inform participants that men are known to outperform
women or that women’s performances will be compared to men’s
Research shows that linking one’s identity to performance or future potential subtly suggests
diagnosticity
o Ex: indicating gender on demographic q’s ↑’s salience of stereotypes related to those
group memberships & reduces performance, both in lab and the world
o Stereos made relevant by emphasizing a test’s importance (one’s general intelligence0
Stereo threat that emerge in high stake testing situations req indiv’s to be aware of stereo AND
aware the performance task is diagnostic
Organization of a setting moderates stereo threat
o Ex: # of whites or men in a setting affect performance of racial minorities and women
o Experiment: women took a math test with 2 o/ females; one male and one female; OR 2
males
Linear decrease inmathe performance w/ each man added
Identity threatening cues cause cognitive, behavioural, and emotional disruptions
Study: tv commercials
o Conditions of exp: 1. Neutral commercials 2. Gender-sereotypic depictions of women
(ex: women fantasizes about being chosen prom queen) 3. Xountersterotypic depictions
of women (ex: attractive women impresses man with knowledge of cars)
Stereotypic commercials activated gender stereos & reduced women’s
inclinations to occupy leadership roles
Less interest in pursuing quantitative domains as a career
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version