PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Discriminant Validity, Demand Characteristics, Social Desirability Bias

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14 Apr 2013
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Chapter 5 PSYC12
Where have all the bigots gone?
Prejudice was no long a natural thing
individual chose that negative view of certain others, either through a moral defect, mental
laziness, or both
stereotypes coming to be understood as attitudes (negative evaluations, rather than pictures in
our heads)
From Katz and Braly to Civil Rights, and Beyond
more positive qualities attributed to Caucasians than African Americans
few respondents attributed negative qualities to Caucasians and positive qualities to Aas
got better over the years
changes in social, legal, and political climate of US seem to correspond with these changes
Are Low-Prejudice People Really Low-Prejudice?
High degree of negativity in traits selected as stereotypical of Aas
although personal beliefs in negative stereotypes of Aas appear to have decreased, knowledge of
the cultural stereotype of Aas has remained the same
Caucasians rather unanimously know about the negative things (and few positive things) that
are stereotypically associated with Aas via their early learning from parents or through society
their willingness to personally believe, and also overtly express, such negative attitudes has
changes
Modern Racism
some whites are ambivalent toward Aas
conflicted between their anti-Black feelings and their beliefs that racism and discrimination are
wrong
not issue whether Aas should be equal, but how that equality should be implemented in policy,
law, and employment
believe that:
discrimination is a thing of the past
Aas are too pushy, trying to get into places where they are not welcome
demands of Aas are unfair
Aas gains are undeserved and unfair
do not consider themselves racist
regard racism as old-fashioned
negative feelings are disguised, to prevent dissonance associated with acknowledging the
hypocrisy of prejudice and egalitarian values, as negative attitudes toward anyone who violates what
they believe are traditional American values
Symbolic Racism
blend of anti-Black affect and traditional American moral values embodied in the Protestant
Ethic
whites that would be classified as symbolic racists tend to resist changing the racial status quo
in all areas of life economically, socially, and politically
can deny having racist attitudes
because they think racist is one who has old-fashioned racist beliefs
hold toward group that do not seem to value traditional American values
eg. self-reliant, harding working, and individualistic
unlikely blacks will be regarded as this
Aversive Racism
White americans who possess these racist beliefs and feelings alongside strong egalitarian
values
reflects an ambivalence in Caucasians between their learned negative attitudes toward Aas and
their commitment to egalitarian values and beliefs
will take great pains to not do or say anything that appears to be prejudiced
truly believe they are not prejudiced
when they are in situation in which it is unclear whether there are social prohibitions against
expressing negative racial beliefs
feelings about Aas may be expressed in subtle, easily justifiable ways
when social norms are clearly anti prejudice, will behave in way that may appear very strongly
egalitarian
self-reported expressions of prejudice should decline over time, but that subtle, underlying
prejudice should remain constant
Measures of Stereotyping and Prejudice
The Self-Report Questionnaire
opinion polls or interviews are not most popular method
labor-intensive nature
eg. interview methods require interviewer, done only one at a time
more efficient way: self-report questionnaire
PROS:
administer hundreds of questionnaires simultaneously to hundreds of participants
most popular method of attitude assessment in psychology today
researcher does not have to be present
CONS:
responses usually restricted to the proper response alternatives provided (unless open-answer
format)
people do not often provide their true attitudes
sensitive nature of an issue may prevent people from being conscious or aware of their true,
underlying attitudes towards it
eg. racial attitudes
tendency to present oneself in a positive light is social desirability
tell person that their responses will be completely anonymous or confidential if cannot be the
former
instructions that it is important they give honest answers
demand characteristics are aspects of a questionnaire that encourage subjects to make their
own hypotheses about what answers are expected or what is being measured
represent unwanted bias in the research
use filler items to make hypothesis in study less obvious
The Bogus Pipeline
EMG participants more confident that Americans had more positive traits and less negative
traits
many whites were not as low-prejudice as their egalitarian responses on self-report measures of
prejudice would suggest
negative attitudes of Whites toward Blacks had not declined dramatically
willingness of Whites to overtly express these negative racial attitudes changed
EMG participants provided more negative attitudes towards Blacks (compared with those in the
ratings condition) because they believed that the machine could accurately assess their attitudes, and if
they attempted to portray themselves as those in the ratings condition (i.e. As non prejudiced), the
machine would show to the researcher that the subject had lied
rather than risk being seen as a liar, subject indicated (via his negative responses about Blacks)
that he is prejudiced
this technique does reduce attitude distortion
not conducted very much because it is very labour insensitive
SCQ popular because it is:
nonreactive, easy to administer and score,very brief, and has little or no demand characteristics
when people are happy, they are more likely to use a stereotype in their judgements about a
target
people are more likely to stereotype when they are angry but not when they feel sad
when they are cognitively busy, they were more likely to use stereotypes when thinking about a
target
Measuring Prejudice
MRS to measure the subtle form of anti-Black prejudice that characterize prejudice today
described by modern racism theory
CONS:
not good discriminant validity
reactive
Priming and Reaction Times: The True Measure?
Racial-argument scale
good reliability and validity
predict positive or negative behaviour against blacks, promising