PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes -Ego Depletion, Allostatic Load, Intersectionality
19 views10 pages
-blacks and latinos continue to trail whites in standardized measures of reading and mathematics at all
-achievement gap has narrowed overtime but not the race gap.
-similar gaps exist WORLDWIDE
-gender gap is small in high school, large in entrance tests to university like SATs
-women still a minority when it comes to top positions
What Causes the Achievement Gap?
-standard explanations: nature/nuture, biological/genetic, culture/socialization
-Nature: the bell curve (blacks and latinos have inferior genes), women's inferior instrinsic aptitude
-Nurture:women products of sociocultural environments, less education resourcs (low income family)=
lower academic performance.
-it is believed that scores on a standardized test of intelligence and achievement are valid and unbiased
indicator of a person's true abilty.
-race difference still exists even after controlling socioeconomic status
-even culturally fair and valid measures can still be subject to variables that systematically impair
performance for some individuals and not others.
-something in the situation itself, holds maginalized groups back from reaching their full
potential. This something is the existence of SOCIAL STEREOTYPES.- creates a threatening intellectual
environment for stigmatized individuals
-a climate in which anything they say or do could be interpreted through the lens of low
expectations- STEREOTYPE THREAT.
-defined as a situational predicament in which individuals are at risk, by dint of their actions or
behaviours, of confirming negative stereotypes about their group.
-this fear of confirmtion can hijack the congnitive systems required for optimal performance and
result in low test performance.
- occurs also in latinos, women in math and science, elderly in meemory and whites in athletics.
-the theory of ST acoids the nature vs nurture trap by suggesting that situations themselves can bring
apparent group differences in performance. It avoids labeling people. Points to power of the SITUATION.
Even subtle changes to the situation can have profound effects on performance.
-Stereotype threat can also cause learning impairments.
-can ead to negative health complications as a result of frequent activation of a stress response.
-impairments tos to basic executive-level cognitive processes can then have implications for decision
making and the control of negative or maladaptive impulses.
Chapter 2: THE ROLE OF SITUATIONAL CUES IN SIGNALING AND MAINTAINING STEREOTYPE THREAT
-the meaning people assign to those cues ultimately affects whehther they will become vulnerable to-or
protected against-stereotype threat.
-"identity safe" cues in a setting can eliminate stereotype threat by reducing identity threat concerns
and signaling to stigmatized individuals that their social identity will not be a liability to their outcomes.
Stereotype Threat: A Person in Context
-situational cues in a setting make a stereotype salient and relevant to one's actions, the resulting
psychological pressure to disprove the stereotype might depress academic performance.
The Role of Cues and Vigilance n Stereotype Threat
-assumption that a personal has multiple social identities. When situational cues signal an indentity's
value or importance in a setting, that particularg roup membership becomes more salient than the
others and vigilance process in initiated during which ppl's attn is directed to other situational cues in
the environment to determine whether the identity may be a liability.
-vigilance increased if the identity may be a liability.
-remember more situational cues
-individuals differ with regard to the likelihood and intensity that thy engage the vigilance process.
-research finds that the degree to which one identifies w/ a domain moderates stereotype threat
-ppl who are more identified with their stereotyped social group are also more vulnerable to stereotype
Situational Cues in Academic Settings
-when a test is notoriously important- such as when it predicts future academic opportunities or
scholarships- no additional cue is necessary to induce stereotype threat.
-organization of a setting significantly moderates stereotype threat effects.
-ie with each man added to a testroom where a woman was taking a math test, performance
declined linearly whereas men were unaffected by the cue.
-women exposed to stereotypic commercials indicated less interest in persuing quantitative domains as
a career, preferring to apply for verbal domains in which a potential for gender stereotyping is reduced.
-subtle situational cues found in both the media and in the behaviors of others can launch the
stereotype process and interfere with the performance, aspirations, and cognitive processes of
Situational Cues and Social Identity Concerns
-situational cues become meaningful to people to the extent that they imply some contingency between
the cue and one's outcome in a setting.
-stigmatized individuals experience more uncertainty in novel situations that unstigmatized ppl do
-stigmatized ppl also search for cues to belonging.( Belonging concerns).
-stigamatized individuals are also vigilant to cues that indicate the likelihood that they can be authentic
in a setting. May make person feel fake. (Authenticity concerns)
-sitmatized individuals often look for cues to interpersonal trust. (Trust and fairness concerns)
-discrimination and devaluation concerns
-marginalization, ghettoizations, social exclusion concerns: concerns that one's beliefs are abnormal to
-situational cues vary in the number and type of social identity concerns that they trigger.
Creating and Sustaining Identity-safe Settings
-identity safe settings contain identity-affirming cues-which signal to people that their social identity is
Cues to Identity Safety in Academic Settings
-threat in a academic setting is reduced by explicitly stating that the upcoming test is nondiagnostic of
intelligence. Or explicitly saying that is test is unbiased/culturally fair.
-its seems that ppl linkg evaluative tests to negative group stereotypes automatically and it takes an
explicit rebuttal of the the stereotype's revelance to elimiante stereotype threat.
Adding Identity-safe Cues to a Setting
Blacks and latinos continue to trail whites in standardized measures of reading and mathematics at all age levels. Achievement gap has narrowed overtime but not the race gap. Gender gap is small in high school, large in entrance tests to university like sats. Women still a minority when it comes to top positions. Nature: the bell curve (blacks and latinos have inferior genes), women"s inferior instrinsic aptitude. Nurture:women products of sociocultural environments, less education resourcs (low income family)= lower academic performance. It is believed that scores on a standardized test of intelligence and achievement are valid and unbiased indicator of a person"s true abilty. Race difference still exists even after controlling socioeconomic status. Even culturally fair and valid measures can still be subject to variables that systematically impair performance for some individuals and not others. Something in the situation itself, holds maginalized groups back from reaching their full potential.