PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Word Stem, Implicit Stereotype, Uncorrelated Random Variables

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11 May 2012
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Chp3: Feeling vs. Thinking in the Activation and Application of stereotypes
Mood
Are prejudices – guided by stereotypes or our feelings for a person
Traditonaly emotions were thought to contribute importantly to the development and
endurance of stereotypes – history would have us believe that emotion guides intergroup
relations
affect influences the accesability of constructs in memory and thus may determine which of
many social representations are primed and which charactheristics in a given represention
become activated
Affect:
Influnces
oEffort exterted on information processing efforts
oSocial group labels through learning process
oWhen affect andd with psychological arousal are related to a group member
– it affects how we interact with that person
Types of Intergroup Affect
oIncidental Affect – affect elicited by situations unrelated to the intergroup
context
Studied more
Feelings that do not come from outgroup
For example you walk down the street and it begin to rain now you
are sad – this affects your intergroup affect – by altering your base
affect
Stroessner and Mackie 1993
Induced incidental happiness or sadness in participants
Both groups experienced reduced the perception of outgroup
variability
Used more negative sterotypes
Happy ppl provide – more lilely to provide especially
favroable sterotypes of their own ethnic ingroup
Incidental anxiety also facilitates the use of stereotypes
Increases outgroup homogenisticy
oAffect induced in a circu,stances unrelated to the outgroup can have an
impact on attitudes toward the outgroup
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oIntegral Affect – affect that is elicited within the intergroup contex and
involves the stereotyped outgroup
Have not been studied that much
Can even arise from justing thinking about the outgroup
Chronic Outgroup affect – stable feeling towards the outgroup as a
whole
Stable, enduring evaluations of an attitude object
At attitude object
oAnything about which someone forms an attitude,
personal place anything
The reason the affect is stable is because – it draws on the
stable evuluvation or attitude about that outgroup
The affect one feels toward the out-group as a result of ones
enduring attitude toward the out-group – chronic outgroup effect
– every time we recall that outgroup all that associated
evulvations are brought up
These feeling are different from affective reaction of dealing
with a particular individual of the outgroup
Episodic Outgroup affect – affective reaction within an interaction
with a specific outgroup member
Often has a strong impact on an individual\s chronic
enduring outgroup affect
oYou can positively alter chornic outgroup affects
through positive episodic outgroup affect
Can be similar or different from the chornic outgroup affect
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Effects of categorizing ppl into ingroups and outgroups:
Ingroup assumed to be more similar in beliefs
Evaluvated more favourably
Reciepients of more positive behavipr by the perciwever then members of the
outgroup
Found to be more attractive by the perceiver
White ppl tend to see the black culture as promoting values contrary to the protestant work
ethic – work and achieve
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Aversive Racism – prejudice towards African Americans that characterizes many
white Americans attitudes
oTruly believe that they are egalitarian regard themselves as being not
prejudiced
oPossess negative feelings about African Americans
oIf they can, they will express negative attitudes and feel no affective
consequences (preserving self from conflict related negative affect) – the
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Low-Prejudice individuals
oAlso truly believe they are egalitarian
oWhen a situation threatens to make these negative feelings salient, these
people try to dissociate themselves by acting more positively
oIf they meet a black person they will act extra nice
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Theorietical model of intergroup anxiety (Stephan and Stephan)
oAnxiety has a disruptive effect on the behaviors thought and feeling of the
outgroup members and the perceiver
oPeople experience anxiety
Leads to increased stereotyping
Why?
oAffective consistency process (cuing more negative
cognitions) – if you are sad you have sad thought –
thus if you are anxious you have more negative
cognitions
oIncreased reliance on expectancies
Because of decreased cognitive capacity
Avoidance of future intergroup contact
Attempts by the perceiver to control others
oWhen there has been minimal prior contact with outgroup or their has been
a conflict contact
More anxiety prior to or during intergroup interaction
Dijker
oAn important determinant of the type of chronic racial affect that the
perceiver feels in the intergroup context is the degree to which the outgroup
member is culturally dissimilar from the perceiver
o4 types of emotions strongly related to ethnic attitudes
Positive mood
associated with an ethnic group that is culturally similar
othe opposite held true for culturally dissimilar groups
Anxiety
More personal contact associated with decreased anxiety
Irritation
Concern
some research suggests that intergroup affect – is a better determinant of attitudes
and behaviros towards an ethnic group – more so than cognition about that group
but others suggest that our cognition about members of the outgroup influence how
we feel about the outgroup
Intergroup Context- bring with it an emotional component for the interactants
factors scuh as