Chapter 1: Introduction to the study of stereotyping and prejudice
•Groups are the basic building blocks of society
•Ingroups: group members tend to favour their own groups over other groups to which they do not
•Prejudice: practical perspectives that form the basis for negative feelings about other groups
•Stereotypes: believing that certain characteristics are associated with other groups
•Schema: defined as cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a concept or type of
stimulus, including its attributes and relations among those attributes
•Attitude: a general evaluation of some object
•Discrimination: any negative behaviour directed toward an individual based on their membership
in a group
•Prejudice can be based on affective, cognitive, or behavioural sources and can result in cognitive,
behavioural or affective expressions of prejudice
• Of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion
•How we react to any given outgroup member depends on:
oWhat self- category is salient for us at that moment
oIn what context the interaction occurs
oHow that person helps or hinders our movement toward salient personal or group goals at
oOccurs between groups
oInvolves an evaluation (positive or negative) of a group
oIs a biased perception of a group
oIs based on the real or imagined characteristics of the group
•Dollard et al. “frustration theory”: frustration leads to aggression, and a special type of aggression
is feelings of prejudice toward others
•Berkowitz: any negative feeling leads to aggressive feelings
When is something prejudice?
What was said? How was it said? Legitimate generalization?
Meant to harm?
Does the person truly believe what he/she said?
Power between parties
Stereotype: A set of attributes & traits associated with a group of people (social category).
Prejudice: Biased evaluation of a group based on the traits associated with that group.
Discrimination: Negative behaviour towards someone based on their group membership.
Stereotypes as abnormal vs. Stereotypes as normal psychological process
Based on active categorization
We have to categorize, to learn