Textbook Notes (290,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYC18H3 (200)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 text book notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3 - cultural understandings of emotions
Construction of emotions in the west
distrust of emotions; emotional = irrational; Plato - emotions arise from the lower part
of the mind and pervert reason; Darwin - expression of emotions are obsolete, vestiges
of our evolution from the beasts and of our development from infancy
not consistent - guarantee of authenticity , best guide to our true selves; Solomon -
emotions are the life force of the soul, the source of most of our values
Romanticism - period that started around 1750 in Europe, in which primacy of the
natural and of the emotions was stressed, as compared with the artificial and with the
dictates of convention (valued in personal life, politics, literature, and philosophy
Rousseau - articulation of the Romantic spirit; religious sensibility is based on how you
feel rather than on authority, or on scripture, or on arguments for the existence of God;
cultivated pursuits as artificial and corrupting; education should be natural and peoples
natural emotions indicate what is right (feelings of their conscience)
oSocial Contract - rallying call for the Jacobins in the French Revolution; help fuel
the American War of Independence
1800 Romanticism - firmly part of western culture, inseparable of individual freedom;
inspired art - fascinated by the natural wild scenery;
writers explored ordinary life, over artificial lives of aristocrats, explored childhood,
dreams, far-away places, exotic - way of discovering inner emotional truths
oShelley - Frankenstein - one of the worlds first science fiction stories; prompted
by conversation about experiments in which electricity was used to stimulate
muscle movements in dead creatures
settings amid wild scenery, emphasis on the natural, distrust of the artificial,
apprehension of humans arrogantly overstepping their boundaries
core beliefs about human nature; emotions as original, primordial, authentic
causes of behaviour; powerful forces often at odds with more deliberate,
rational thought embodied in science and codified in cultural conventions
Elements of a cultural approach to emotion
values, concepts, and ideas about the self, as expressed in art forms, rituals, social
practices and institutions, shape how members of particular societies experience
emotion; not universal
assumptions of cultural approaches -
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oemotions are constructed primarily by the processes of culture; aspects ranging
from how beliefs and practices have been affected by historical and economic
forces; derive from human meanings which are cultural; like languages or works of
art
oemotions can be thought of as roles that people fulfill to play out cultural-specific
identities and relationships
Averill argues that falling in love acts as a temporary social role; provides
outline script for the role of lover in which it is permissible for other social
roles to be suspended
oMesquita - cultural approaches focus on the practice of emotion, in contrast to the
potential of emotions; what actually happens in peoples emotional lives
self-construal approaches
oindependent self - autonomous, separate; unique traits and preferences; behaviour
caused by internal causes; identity stable
ointerdependent self - connected to others; fulfill roles and duties; behaviour caused
by social contexts; identity varies
oMiyake et al. - showed interesting toys to American and Japanese infants; cultural
differences were pronounced when mothers spoke in angry voice; Japanese infant
took longer since angry expressions were rare and highly negative events
oamae - emotion of interdependence - from merged togetherness; comfort in other
peoples complete acceptance
values approach - broad principles that govern our social behaviour
oBenedict - to be sincere in America is to act in accord with ones innermost
emotions; in Japan, makoto, social duty not according to inner feelings, but doing
it with expertise without inner conflict
oelicitor - event that starts some emotion, or some action; particular value is
prioritized according to culture which elicits emotions related to that value
omore hierarchical cultures status- or honour-related emotions (embarrassment,
pride) are more common and elaborated
oHupka - society monogamy leads to two-parent family; cherished value; key to
adult status; economic security; housing; rearing of children; adult companionship;
sex - jealousy is feared and hated
oclan-based societies; interdependent self; cooperative effort; child-rearing is
distributed; adult companionship derives from many relatives; monogamy is not
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