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17 Feb 2011
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Chapter 4: Elements of Emotions
-5 kinds of non-verbal behaviour
-Often, singular emotion lacks the nonverbal communication aspect
1) Emblems
Nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words
Two fingers up = peace ( V ^__^ )
Nonverbal meanings of emblems differ across cultures
2) Illustrator
Nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech
Makes speech more vivid and visual
Facial gestures included (raise of eyebrows)
Moving our heads, hands or torso
3) Regulators
Nonverbal behaviours we use to coordinate conversation
Ppl look and point at and orient bodies toward ppl whom they speak too
Look and turn bodies away form those they wish to speak to or not
4) Self adaptor
Nervous behaviours ppl engage in with no seeming intention
Jiggle legs, stroke chins, touch necks
5) Non verbal expressions or displays of emotion
Singles of face, voice, body and touch that convey emotion
-Facial expressions of emotion
oMarkers of emotional expressions
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1) Expression tends to be brief (1-10seconds)
Real emotion is brief
Prolonged ones maybe fake (smile politely through a unpleasant
dinner)
2) Emotions involve involuntary muscle actions
When they feel it, they cant suppress it, even when told not to
express it anymore
E.g. anger = muscles around mouth to clench
3) Emotional expressions have parallels, homologues in other species
Evolutionary aspect, some emotions seen across species
-Studies of the universality of facial expressions
oDarwin and evolutionary approaches
Principle of serviceable habits
Expressive behaviour that led to rewards re-occur
Exposed teeth fend enemies away, hence, will happen when you are
angry and scaring off ppl in the future
Principle of antithesis
Opposing states associated with opposing expressions (how you
feel, has a physical presentation of it)
Strength and confidence expressed by expanding chest and
shoulders, where weakness and uncertainty expressed by shoulder
drug
Principle of nervous discharge
Excess, undirected energy realised in random expressions (when
nervous) like face touches, leg jiggles
oTomkins, Ekman, and Izard
Took Darwin and simplified into:
Encoding hypothesis
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Emotions are universal
Experience of different emotion associated with same distinct
facial expressions in every society
Decoding hypothesis
Universal emotions, ppl interpret facial expression the same way
This includes, anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise
(several studies, listed in lecture notes)
-Critiques of the studies of universal facial expressions
oGradient critique
Some expressions not recognizable but remote cultures compared to those
who portray it
oForced choice critique
Participants forced too label expressions in terms provided by researcher
May of acted differently if they interpreted the terms themselves
oEcological validity
Expressions are too emphasized and exaggerated
-Discovering new facial displays of emotions
oContempt added to universality list
This face includes asymmetrical tightening of lip corners, or sneer
Moral disapproval of another
oExhilaration also part of the new universality list
oTo class non universal emotions
One needs to show that the experience of an emotion correlates with a
pattern of facial action (encode)
Then, one needs to show that what ppl are doing is a display of a target
emotion
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