Chapter 5 notes

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17 Feb 2011
Chapter 5: Bodily changes in Emotions
-William james
oChanged thought of where emotions come from, instead of from the mind..he claims that
emotions is felt from experiences of the body
oEach emotion has a distinct physical reverberation by the autonomic nervous sytem
-The autonomic nervous system
oNeural signals sent to cortex, and communicated with limbic system and hypothalamus
oSignals trigger muscle, glands, and blood vessels
oControls all processes, (regulation of bodily fluids, digestion)
oMaintains internal body condition
oEnables adaptive response to environment
oPara-sympathetic branch
Helps restorative processes
Reduce heart rate and blood pressure
Essential in sex, increases blood flow to clitoris or penis
Increase digestive processes
Regulate saliva and tear glands
Incorporates 2 parts of the spinal cord
oVagus nerve (top of spinal cord) and sacral region (near the bottom
of the cord)
Sympathetic branch
increases heart rate
cardiac output
shuts down digestive system
dozens of neural pathways
used to contract piloerector muscles (surrounds hairs on arms, neck an
reduces natural killer cells (which are part of the immune system)
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oslowing of this....make ppl prone to chronic stress
-Cannons critique of autonomic specificity
oArgued, bodily changes produce by brain
oNot all things come from sympathetic nervous system
E.g, arousal response, require hormone adrenaline (not produced in sympathetic part
of the nervous system)
Release of this, known to induce the 3 fs: fight, flight, and fuck (sexual behaviour)
1) Autonomic response system is not specific enough to account for specific
emotions. Bodily sweat, and heart rate changes, not good enough to describe
differences between emotions like gratitude, compassion, love, devotion
2) Autonomic nervous system to slow to account for quick emotional changes.
(15-30 seconds, nervous system processes information) emotions change
much quicker than this time
3) Autonomic nervous system also accounts sickness, like to
differentiate emotions from illnesses
4) Autonomic sensations to dull, and insensitive to emotional experience. Ppl
are not fully in tune with nervous system, it just happens without conscious
emotional regulation
oTwo factor theory of emotion: Schachter and Singer
Shift from body to situational factors as the source for emotional experiences
Two lasting influences on study of emotions
1) Interest in appraisals
Meaning, we attribute emotions, to our current situations
2) Labels anxiety as situationally caused
Misattribution of arousal
Certain emotions felt somewhere, falsely used to assume emotions felt in a
different situation
oFindings include: ppl who engage in arousing physical exercise
have great emotional responses to stimuli presented moments later
oGeneral finding
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Arousal, even if physiological, sometimes certain
emotions can be transferred to other situations and effect
our emotional experience of the social world
-Evidence for autonomic specificity in emotion
oEkman, Friesen
Directed facial action
Participants asked to do certain facial things to make emotions (that they
werent aware of)
oEmotions involved with elevated sympathetic response
oNegative emotions (anger, disgust) involved increased sympathetic
arousal (where is positive is a decrease of arousal in sympathetic
oChallenges Canon
oLarge increase in heart rate occurred in fear/sadness (negative
emotions) NON for disgust
oGalvanic skin response (sweat) found greater for fear and disgust
(not sadness or anger)
oFinger temperature greater for anger then fear
Suggesting anger blood flows freely near to hands (aiding
combat) or fear, blood remains near chest to support flight
olevonson and colleagues
shaper physiological emotions in particular conditions
with more specific facial expressions, and reinforcement for experts, further
pushed notion that once emotion is activated, its associated with distinct
physiological responses
-the blush
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