Chapter 7.docx

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27 Apr 2012
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Chapter 7: Appraisal, Knowledge and Experience
- RIGHT hemisphere = emotion
- LEFT hemisphere = language
- split brain procedure patient shown frightening film to left visual field- not conscious seeing the film but feel fear
(Gazzaniga)
- primary appraisal: conscious and automatic, reflex (example above)
- secondary appraisal: potentially conscious, thought-like, specific emotions
- for events to prompt emotions, must be evaluated or appraised in relation to individual’s goals
- concept of evaluation of events to one’s purposes goes back to Aristotle
- Epicurus and Chrysippus how damaging effects emotions avoided to having good life
- influence on Western thought first thoroughgoing Western emotion researchers
- Chrysippus distinguished btw first movements of emotions (automatic) and second movements (mental, judgment
and decision)
- one cannot avoid first movements made by body
- second movements involve thought voluntary
- second movements of bad emotions i.e. angry revenge, greed later became Christian seven deadly sins
- later became framework for primary and secondary appraisal
- Magda Arnold and J.A. Gasson reintroduced idea of emotion as evaluation/ appraisal
Richard Lazarus spend career studying stress (personal challenges exceed individual capacities and resources) different
kinds of stress accounted for emotion
- each different kind of stress promotes particular kind of emotion by means of a specific appraisal process
- approach to emotion 2 themes:
1. first, emotion is a response to evaluative judgments or meaning (judgment whether good of bad event is)
2. second, judgments ongoing relationships with environment (concerns goals and aspirations, and how is
interacting with environment)
- emotions both refer to events in world and to person’s concerns; relate to outer world and inner self
Stein, Trabasso, Liwag: appraisals give rise to emotions also involve beliefs, inferences and plans
1. an event, usually unexpected is perceived that changes the status of valued goal (what happened?)
2. beliefs are often challenged; can cause bodily changes and expressions to occur (what can I do about it?)
3. plans formed about what to do about event to reinstate or modify goal and the likely results of the plans are
considered (what might happen next?)
- how a person sees an event frame they use, depends on the person’s goals and values will determine how the
event is perceived, what emotions are elicited and even what is remembered
- consistent with Lazarus’s treatment of appraisal
- same event might lead to different emotions in different people
- specific emotions, thought- like processes secondary appraisals
Robert Zajonc: process stimuli through different appraisal systems
PRIMARY APPRAISAL:
- provides immediate, unconscious evaluation whether stimulus is good or bad
- primary appraisals, automatic emotion reactions to events and objects in environment which motivate rapid approach
or reward responses
- primary appraisals correspond to Chrysippus’ first movements
- involve amygdale
- gives rise to positivity or negativity
SECONDARY SYSTEM
- deliberate, conscious, complex assessments what caused event and what do it about it
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