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Chapter 10

PSYC18H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Ultimatum Game, Reciprocal Altruism, Reid Technique


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Rimma Teper
Chapter
10

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Chapter 10 Emoons & Cognion-
Passion & reason
Without a funconing orbitofrontal cortex and the social emoons that this brain area involved
in processing, people lack social judgement; their decision making is askew.
Without social emoons, these brain-damaged people become no longer raonal.
In MuyBridge’s case jealousy was magni#ed and so una$ected by other emoons
One of the most striking qualies of emoons is how they in'uence reasoning
The philosopher Jean-Paul Satre referred to this as MAGICAL TRANSFORMATION by the
emoons of how we see the world.
When angry, afraid, euphoric, or in love, we construe the world in di$erent ways.
Usually its more temporary but usually its convincing at the me.
Each emoon is its own lens through which we view the world.
In the Western philosophical tradion, emoons have o+en been regarded with suspicion
oMany philosophers have assumed that the emoons are less sophiscated, more
primive ways of perceiving the world, especially when juxtaposed with lo+ier forms of
reason.
oEpicureans & Stoics; to lead a good life, emoons should be exrpated (detroy)
altogether.
What do we mean when we ask whether emoons can be raonal?
oSubstanal beliefs: Emoons are o+en products of complex beliefs about events in the
world
oWhether or not emoons help individuals funcon e$ecvely in the social world.
Emoons in many contexts are raonal in that they help individuals respond adapvely
to the environment
oEmoons structure percepon, direct a3enon, give preferenal access to certain
memories, and bias judgment in ways that generally help people in ways that we
recognize as valuable to our humanity.
Emoons Priorize thoughts, Goals, and Acons
Simon argued that emoons would be necessary in any intelligent being
According to him, emoons are a soluon to general problem : they set priories among
the very many di$erent goals that impinge upon individuals at any momet
This need for priorizaon mechanism emerges in complex organisms like humans
In very simple animals, behavior is controlled by re+exes; for example, the female ck doesn’t
need emoons (The butyric acid ex)
Really complex such as God wouldn’t need emoons either b/c everything would be known &
everything ancipated.
We are somewhere between cks & God.
Our world is complex and we act with purposes.

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The noon that emoons signal con+ict and redirect the individual’s acon was focus of
classical Greek dramas, of some of Aristotle’s work, and of much of Freud’s.
Emoons are bridges toward raonality.
Oatley and Johnson-Laird proposed that emoons involve two di$erent kinds of signaling in the
nervous system
1. One kind occurs automacally and derives from primary appraisal
In evoluonary terms it is old, simple, and carries no speci#c informaon about
objects in the environment it is ORGANIZATIONAL
It sets the brain into a parcular mode of organizaon, or readiness, along with an
urge to act in line with this readiness, speci#c to the parcular basic emoon (joy,
anger, sadness, fear etc.)
Has the phenomenological feeling tone of an emoon but no other content
Can have many sources, inside the body, and outside the environment; quick
prompt toward the kind of thing to do next
Smuli are shown subliminally, operate at this automac, unconscious level and
are resistant to a3ribuonal intervenons
2. The 2nd kind of signal derives from secondary appraisal. It is INFORMATIONAL
The informaon it carries enables us to make mental models of the events and their
possible causes and implicaons
On the basis of these 2 kinds of signal we act in accordance both with how we feel and with
what we know
Normally, the organizaonal and informaonal signals occur together to produce an emoonal
feeling with a consciously known cause & object
But the two kinds of signal can be dissociated (ex: split brain paents);
According to Oatley and Johnson-Laird, the dissociaon accounts for why we somemes have
emoons with no objects and how psychoacve drugs such as tranquilizers can change our
emoonal state without doing anything to events of the world
Also how we can know about some events in the world without caring about them.
Three Perspecves on Emoons in Cognive Funconing
Emoon congruence
Gordon Bower argued that moods and emoons are based in associave brain networks
When you experience an emoon, all the associaons of that emoon become more accessible
According to Gordon Bower, we should be able to learn material that is CONGRUENT with our
current emoon, because it is integrated into acve memory structures and more easily
retrieved
Parcipants were hypnozed to feel happy or sad; they then read a brief story about 2
college students, one doing really well, the other doing poorly

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In the memory test the next day, parcipants who were happy recalled the story of
the student doing well and sad parcipants remembered more about the student
doing poorly
However, somemes memories that are incongruent with mood may be recalled be3er than
those that are congruent
According Eich and Macaulay, mood-dependent e$ects are certainly salient in memory and
percepon, but e$ects depend on the tasks that parcipants perform, on the moods that are
induced, and on who the parcipants are
When people recall an autobiographical event, it was found that mood e$ects do occur but they
vary because people’s experiences are di$erent
According to the A$ect Infusion Model, emoons infuse into a cognive task, and are more likely
to in'uence memory & judgment, parcularly if the task is complex.
Feelings as Informaon
A second approach to thinking, proposed by Gerald Clore, about how emoons in'uences
cognion is of AFFECT AS INFORMATION.
In this perspecve,Emoons themselves can be informave when we make judgments
The account rests on two hypotheses
i. Emoons provide us with a signal: ex) anger can signal that an injusce has
occurred and needs to be changed
ii. Many of our judgments are too complex to enable us to review all the relevant
evidence But given the complexity of so many judgments, we o+en rely on a
simpler assessment based on our current feelings.
Emoons are HEURISTICS, guesses that o+en work be3er than chance; shortcuts to making
judgments or taking acon
Study by Schwarz and Clore
Studied e$ects of bright sunny days and gloomy overcast days one peoples emoonal
lives
In one condion parcipants were simply asked the queson. In the second queson,
parcipants were #rst asked “How’s the weather down there?” and only then asked the
queson about life sasfacon
Schwarz and Clore predicted, parcipants who had NOT been asked about the weather
would use their current feelings such as heuriscs, or shortcuts strategies to help make
the complex judgement of how sas#ed they were: those who were called on a sunny
day would report greater life sasfacon than parcipants who were called on a gloomy
day.
Parcipants who were asked about the weather #rst before asking about life sasfacon,
would be LESS likely to be in'uenced by feelings that had been a$ected by the weather
as they made their judgments of life sasfacon.
People use their emoons as heuriscs in making judgements, but not when they can
a3ribute those feelings to a speci#c source such as feeling happy because its a nice day.
The famous Capilano Suspension bridge study
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