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Chapter 15

Chapter 15

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC37H3
Professor
Bouffard

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Chapter 15: Computers and Basic Psychological Science in Testing
Cognitive-Behavioural Assessment Procedures
Rationale for cognitive-behavioural assessment
oDisordered behaviour believed to be caused by some underlying characteristic such as early
traumatic experience
oOne major function of traditional psychological tests is to ascertain possible underlying
causes of disordered behaviours
oCognitive-behavioural assessment, the behaviours, though processes, physiological
responses that define disordered condition considered the real problem
oCertain techniques include evaluation of factors that precede, coexist with and follow
disordered behaviour
May be environmental factors, thought processes or both
oMore direct than traditional psychological tests
oCharacterized by fewer inferential assumptions and remains closer to observable
phenomena
oTreatment may involve modifying internal dialogue before and after boy eats and modify
mothers behaviours so that she no longer reinforces avoidance of food but instead reinforces
eating
Procedures based on operant conditioning
oPsychologists observe behaviours of individual, after they make a response, psychologist can
do something to them to alter probability of recurrence of response
oMay present something positive or remove something negative following response, which
should increase rate of recurrence or else they may present something aversive or remove
something positive preceding response, which should reduce rate or recurrence
oMust first identify critical responses involved in disorder
oThen evaluate for frequency, intensity, duration, establishes baseline for particular
behaviour
oIf behaviours occur too frequently: behavioural excess, if occur too infrequently: behavioural
deficits
oAfter attempting to increase/decrease behaviour, observe effect of intervention on behaviour
in question relative to baseline
Self-report techniques
oList of statements about particular situations
oSubjects task may be either to respond to true or false to each statement or to circle a
number to indicate the importance or relevance of statement
oFocus on situations that lead to particular response patterns
oTraditional self-report focus on relatively enduring internal characteristics of individual
(personality traits) that lead to particular response patterns
oCognitive self report: one sees situations as primary determinant of behaviour
oTraditional sees characteristics that person brings to situation as primary determinant of
behaviour
Fear survey schedule (FSS)
oOldest and most researched of cognitive-behavioural self-report procedures
oOne adaptation created for measuring specific phobias
oItems typically related to situations that involve fear and avoidance behaviours, such as fear
of open places, snakes, dead animals
oSubjects rate each item according to degrees to which they experience that particular fear
oAttempts to identify those situations that elicit fear, thus avoidance
Assertiveness
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Description
Chapter 15: Computers and Basic Psychological Science in Testing Cognitive-Behavioural Assessment Procedures Rationale for cognitive-behavioural assessment o Disordered behaviour believed to be caused by some underlying characteristic such as early traumatic experience o One major function of traditional psychological tests is to ascertain possible underlying causes of disordered behaviours o Cognitive-behavioural assessment, the behaviours, though processes, physiological responses that define disordered condition considered the real problem o Certain techniques include evaluation of factors that precede, coexist with and follow disordered behaviour May be environmental factors, thought processes or both o More direct than traditional psychological tests o Characterized by fewer inferential assumptions and remains closer to observable phenomena o Treatment may involve modifying internal dialogue before and after boy eats and modify mothers behaviours so that she no longer reinforces avoidance of food but instead reinforces eating Procedures based on operant conditioning o Psychologists observe behaviours of individual, after they make a response, psychologist can do something to them to alter probability of recurrence of response o May present something positive or remove something negative following response, which should increase rate of recurrence or else they may present something aversive or remove something positive preceding response, which should reduce rate or recurrence o Must first identify
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