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Chapter 1

Chapters 1, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC37H3
Professor
Bouffard

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Chapter 1: Introduction
What a Test Is
a measurement device or technique used to quantify behaviour or aid in the understanding and
prediction or behaviour
item: a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly; this response can be scored or
evaluated
psychological test: set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that
pertain to behaviour
oovert: an individuals observable activity
ocovert: takes place within an individual and cannot be directly observed
Types of Test
individual tests- tests that can only be given to one person at a time
test administer- person giving test
group test- can be administered to more than one person at a time by single examiner
different types of ability:
oachievement: previous learning
oaptitude: potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill
ointelligence: persons general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances,
think abstractly and profit from experience
human ability- achievement, aptitude, intelligence tests, all three concepts
personality tests- related to overt and covert dispositions of individual
omeasure typical behaviour
structured personality tests: provide a statement, usually of self-report variety, require subject to
choose between 2 or more alternative responses
projective personality test- unstructured, stimulus or required response or both are ambiguous
psychological testing- all possible uses, applications, underlying concepts of psychological and
educational tests
reliability- refers to accuracy, dependability, consistency or respectability of test results
validity- refers to meaning and usefulness of test results
Historical Perspective
Early antecedents
by Han Dynasty, use of test batteries (two or more tests used in conjunction) was quite common
national multistage testing program involved local and regional testing centers equipped with
special testing booths
othose who did well on tests at local level went on to provincial capitals for more extensive
essay examinations
1855, British government adopted similar system of testing for civil service
Charles Darwin and Individual Differences
Galton set out to show that some people possessed characteristics that made them more fit than
others
oMental test Cattell
Experimental Psychology and Psychophysical measurement
Herbart used mathematical models as basis for educational theories that strongly influenced 19th
century educational practices
Wundt- founding science of psychology
Psychological testing developed from at least 2 lines of inquiry:
oOne based on work of Darwin, Galton, Cattell on measurement of individual difference
oBased on work of German psychophysicist Herbart, Weber, Fechner and Wundt
(experimental psychology)
www.notesolution.com
Binet developed first major general intelligence test
Evolution of Intelligence and Standardized Achievement Tests
Representative sample- comprises individuals similar to those for whom test is to be used
oMust reflect all segments of population in proportions to actual numbers
1908 Binet-Simon Scale determined childs mental age
Yerkes (APA)
oArmy Alpha- reading ability
oArmy Beta- intelligence of illiterate adults
Personality Tests: 1920- 1940
Traits- relatively enduring dispositions that distinguish one individual from another
Earliest personality tests structures paper and pencil group tests
1935- Murray and Morgan- Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
oMeasure human needs and this to ascertain individual difference in motivation
Emergence of New Approaches to personality Testing
2 most important projective personality tests, Rorschach and TAT grew rapidly by later 1930s and
early 1940s
Factor analysis- method of finding minimum number of dimensions called factors
Chapter 4: Reliability
classical test score theory assumes that each person has a true score that would be obtained if
there were no errors in measurement
difference between true score and observed score results from measurement error X=T+E, X-T=E
assumes that true score for an individual will not change with repeated applications of the same
test
because of random error, repeated applications of same test can produce different scores
domain sampling model: considers the problems created by using a limited number of items to
represent a larger and more complicated construct
oas sample gets larger, it represents the domain more and more accurately
item response theory: computer used to focus on range of item difficulty that helps assess an
individuals ability level
osome difficulties: example, requires a bank of items that have been systematically evaluated
for level of difficulty
The Test-Retest method
used to evaluate the error associated with administering a test at two different times
of value only when we measure traits or characteristics that do not change over time
applies only to measures of stable traits
Parallel Forms
compares two equivalent forms of a test that measure the same attribute
2 forms use different items, the rules used to select items of a particular difficulty level are the
same
Split-Half method
Test given, divided into halves that are scored separately
Results of one half of test compared with results of other
***Read pages 113 to end***
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 5: Validity
Validity: agreement between test score or measure and quality it is believed to measure
Aspects of Validity
Face validity: mere appearance that a measure has validity
Content validity evidence: considers adequacy of representation of the conceptual domain the test
is designed to cover
oTells how well a test corresponds with a particular criterion
oCriterion: the standard against which test is compared
Predictive validity evidence: forecasting function of tests is actually a type/ form of criterion
validity evidence
oExample: SAT test. Predictor variable: SAT: criterion: GPA
Concurrent validity evidence: test and criterion can be measured at same time
Validity coefficient: relationship between test and criterion is usually expressed as a correlation
Construct validity evidence: established through a series of activities in which a researcher
simultaneously defines some construct and develops the instrumentation to measure it
Convergent evidence: when a measure correlates well with other tests believed to measure the
same construct
Discriminant evidence: (divergent validation): test should have low correlations with measures of
unrelated constructs, or evidence for what test does not measure
Chapter 7: Test Administration
Expectancy effects/ Rosenthal effects: data sometimes can be affected by what experimenter
expects to find
Because reinforcement affects behaviour, testers always administer tests under controlled
conditions
Advantages of computer test administers:
oExcellence of standardization
oIndividually tailored sequential administration
oPrecision of timing responses
oRelease of human testers for other duties
oPatience (test taker not rushed)
oControl of bias
Studies of psychiatric disability, mode of asking questions makes a difference
Educational testing, less clear that mode of test administration is less important
Test anxiety appears to have 3 components: worry, emotionally, lack of self- confidence
Many assessment procedures involve the observation of behaviour
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 1: Introduction What a Test Is a measurement device or technique used to quantify behaviour or aid in the understanding and prediction or behaviour item: a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly; this response can be scored or evaluated psychological test: set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behaviour o overt: an individuals observable activity o covert: takes place within an individual and cannot be directly observed Types of Test individual tests- tests that can only be given to one person at a time test administer- person giving test group test- can be administered to more than one person at a time by single examiner different types of ability: o achievement: previous learning o aptitude: potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill o intelligence: persons general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly and profit from experience human ability- achievement, aptitude, intelligence tests, all three concepts personality tests- related to overt and covert dispositions of individual o measure typical behaviour structured personality tests: provide a statement, usually of self-report variety, require subject to choose between 2 or more alternative responses projective personality test- unstructured, stimulus or required response or both are ambiguous psychological testing- all possible uses, applications, underlying concepts of psychological and educational tests reliability- refers to accuracy, dependability, consistency or respectability of test results validity- refers to meaning and usefulness of test results Historical Perspective Early antecedents by Han Dynasty, use of test batteries (two or more tests used in conjunction) was quite common national multistage testing program involved local and regional testing centers equipped with special testing booths o those who did well on tests at local level went on to provincial capitals for more extensive essay examinations 1855, British government adopted similar system of testing for civil service Charles Darwin and Individual Differences Galton set out to show that some people possessed characteristics that made them more fit than others o Mental test Cattell Experimental Psychology and Psychophysical measurement Herbart used mathematical models as basis for educational theories that strongly influenced 19 th century educational practices Wundt- founding science of psychology Psychological testing developed from at least 2 lines of inquiry: o One based on work of Darwin, Galton, Cattell on measurement of individual difference o Based on work of German psychophysicist Herbart, Weber, Fechner and Wundt (experimental psychology) www.notesolution.com Binet developed first major general intelligence test Evolution of Intelligence and Standardized Achievement Tests Representative sample- comprises individuals similar to those for whom test is to be used o Must reflect all segments of population in proportions to actual numbers 1908 Binet-Simon Scale determined childs mental age Yerkes (APA) o Army Alpha- reading ability o Army Beta- intelligence of illiterate adults Personality Tests: 1920- 1940 Traits- relatively enduring dispositions that distinguish one individual from another Earliest personality tests structures paper and pencil group tests 1935- Murray and Morgan- Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) o Measure human needs and this to ascertain individual difference in motivation Emergence of New Approaches to personality Testing 2 most important projective personality tests, Rorschach and TAT grew rapidly by later 1930s and early 1940s Factor analysis- method of finding minimum number of dimensions called factors Chapter 4: Reliability classical test score theory assumes that each person has a true score that would be obtained if there were no errors in measurement difference between true score and observed score results from measurement error X=T+E, X-T=E assumes that true score for an individual will not change with repeated applications of the same test because of random error, repeated applications of same test can produce different scores domain sampling model: considers the problems created by using a limited number of items to represent a larger and more complicated construct o as sample gets larger, it represents the domain more and more accurately item response theory: computer used to focus on range of item difficulty that helps assess an individuals ability level o some difficulties: example, requires a bank of items that have been systematically evaluated for level of difficulty The Test-Retest method used to evaluate the error associated with administering a test at two different times of value only when we measure traits or characteristics that do not change over time applies only to measures of stable traits Parallel Forms compares two equivalent forms of a test that measure the same attribute 2 forms use different items, the rules used to select items of a particular difficulty level are the same Split-Half method Test given, divided into halves that are scored separately Results of one half of test compared with results of other ***Read pages 113 to end*** www.notesolution.comChapter 5: Validity Validity: agreement between test score or measure and quality it is believed to measure Aspects of Validity Face validity: mere appearance that a measure has validity Content validity evidence: considers adequacy of representation of the conceptual domain the test is designed to cover o Tells how well a test corresponds with a particular criterion o Criterion: the standard against which test is compared Predictive validity evidence: forecasting function of tests is actually a type/ form of criterion validity evidence o Example: SAT test. Predictor variable: SAT: criterion: GPA Concurrent validity evidence: test and criterion can be measured at same time Validity coefficient: relationship between test and criterion is usually expressed as a correlation Construct validity evidence: established through a series of activities in which a researcher simultaneously defines some construct and develops the instrumentation to measure it Convergent evidence: when a measure correlates well with other tests believed to measure the same construc
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