oThe YOA allowed for youth cases to be diverted (Diversion: a decision not
prosecute the young offender but rather have him or her undergo an
education or community service program) – for this to occur, the young
offender would have to plead guilty.
oTwo types of custody are available: open (placing the youth in a community
residential facility, group, home, childcare facility, or wilderness camp) or
secure (incarcerating the youth in a prison facility).
•Bill C-37 changed section 16 of the YOA. With this amendment, 16 and 17 yrs old
charged with murder, manslaughter, or aggravated sexual assault, would go to adult
Youth Crime Rates
•Though crimes committed by youths are decreasing, probation is the most frequent
sentence imposed (approx. 63% of youths receive probation)
Assessment of Young Offenders
•There are two levels of consent a clinician will obtain before commencing the
assessment of a child or adolescent
oConsent from the parents or/and the consent from the child or adolescent
•Children’s and youth’s emotional and behavioural difficulties can be categorized as
internalizing (emotional difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and obsessions) and
externalizing (behavioural problems such as delinquency, fighting, and bullying
oExternalizing problems are more difficult to treat and more likely to have
long term persistence
oExternalizing disorders have been known to be quite stable, though
symptoms peak in he teenage years and decrease in the late 20s.
oInternalizing problems can co-occur with externalizing problems.
•To assess externalizing problems. A number of informants (e.g. parents, peers,
teachers) are needed to obtain information concerning their behaviour that the child
or youth may not be aware of.
oIt is important that the behaviour s viewed within a development context –
that is, while rebelling against rules may be normative for adolescents, a