Textbook Notes (378,270)
CA (167,150)
UTSC (19,206)
Psychology (9,978)
PSYC39H3 (204)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Notes

16 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC39H3
Professor
David Nussbaum

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Chapter 13: Assessment and Treatment of Young Female, and Aboriginal
Offenders
YOUTH OFFENDERS
Historical Overview
In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, youth who committed criminal acts were
treated the same as adult offenders
The Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA) of 1908 was enacted in response to the justice
systems past regard.
oThe JDA applied to children and youths between the ages of 7 and 16yrs (18
yrs in some jurisdictions) indicates minimum age for which a child
could be charged with a criminal offence.
oIn the justice system, youths are referred to as delinquent while adult
offenders are referred to as offenders this terminology reflects a difference
between youths and adults.
oA separate court system was also created. They were more informal that
adult court proceedings and delinquents were seen merely as misguided
children in need of guidance and support.
oIn serious cases, the JDA made it possible for delinquents to be transferred to
adult court
oPunishments for delinquents were to be consistent with how a parent would
discipline a child this provided judges with increased sentencing
discretion and options (e.g foster care, fines, etc)
oParents were encouraged to be part of the judicial process as well.
Despite great optimism for the JDA, services to be provided to delinquents as
outlined in the JDA were not always available, some youths were denied their rights
(e.g right to counsel and the right to appeal) due to the systems informality, and the
broad definition of delinquency included acts that were not illegal for adults.
The JDA was replaced by the Young Offenders Act (YOA) in 1984
oYouths had to be at least 12 years old (and up to 18 years old) to be processed
through the justice system. Children under 12yrs were dealt with through
child and family services.
www.notesolution.com
oThe YOA allowed for youth cases to be diverted (Diversion: a decision not
prosecute the young offender but rather have him or her undergo an
education or community service program) for this to occur, the young
offender would have to plead guilty.
oTwo types of custody are available: open (placing the youth in a community
residential facility, group, home, childcare facility, or wilderness camp) or
secure (incarcerating the youth in a prison facility).
Bill C-37 changed section 16 of the YOA. With this amendment, 16 and 17 yrs old
charged with murder, manslaughter, or aggravated sexual assault, would go to adult
court.
Youth Crime Rates
Though crimes committed by youths are decreasing, probation is the most frequent
sentence imposed (approx. 63% of youths receive probation)
Assessment of Young Offenders
There are two levels of consent a clinician will obtain before commencing the
assessment of a child or adolescent
oConsent from the parents or/and the consent from the child or adolescent
Childrens and youths emotional and behavioural difficulties can be categorized as
internalizing (emotional difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and obsessions) and
externalizing (behavioural problems such as delinquency, fighting, and bullying
problems)
oExternalizing problems are more difficult to treat and more likely to have
long term persistence
oExternalizing disorders have been known to be quite stable, though
symptoms peak in he teenage years and decrease in the late 20s.
oInternalizing problems can co-occur with externalizing problems.
To assess externalizing problems. A number of informants (e.g. parents, peers,
teachers) are needed to obtain information concerning their behaviour that the child
or youth may not be aware of.
oIt is important that the behaviour s viewed within a development context
that is, while rebelling against rules may be normative for adolescents, a
www.notesolution.com
younger child who is increasingly rebellious and continuously refuses to
comply with their parents is problematic.
oHence, the duration, severity, and frequency of troublesome behaviours
should be measured.
There are three (3) childhood psychiatric diagnoses that occur with some frequency
in young offenders attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD).
ADHD
oInattention and restlessness (e.g. does not appear to listen when spoken to,
has difficulty in organization, loses items fidgets, and talks excessively)
To be diagnosed, symptoms must occur in two or more settings and
persist for at least six months
oIn making an ADHD diagnosis, the age of the child must be taken in context
In young children, many of the symptoms of ADHD are part of normal
development and behaviour and may not lead to criminal activity later
oMany children with ADHD also receive diagnoses of ODD or CD.
ODD
oPattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behaviour (e.g. losing temper,
deliberately annoying others, and is invidictive)
o40% of children with ODD develop CD
oif a child with ODD qualified for a CD diagnosis, an ODD diagnosis is not
used
CD
oPersistent pattern of behavior in which a youth violates the rights of others
or age appropriate societal norms/rules
oFeatures include initiating physical fights, physically cruel to animals, sets
fires t, lies for gain, and misses school often before the age of 13.
oApprox. 50% of children meeting criteria for CD go on to receive diagnoses of
antisocial personality disorder in adulthood.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 13: Assessment and Treatment of Young Female, and Aboriginal Offenders YOUTH OFFENDERS Historical Overview In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, youth who committed criminal acts were treated the same as adult offenders The Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA) of 1908 was enacted in response to the justice systems past regard. o The JDA applied to children and youths between the ages of 7 and 16yrs (18 yrs in some jurisdictions) indicates minimum age for which a child could be charged with a criminal offence. o In the justice system, youths are referred to as delinquent while adult offenders are referred to as offenders this terminology reflects a difference between youths and adults. o A separate court system was also created. They were more informal that adult court proceedings and delinquents were seen merely as misguided children in need of guidance and support. o In serious cases, the JDA made it possible for delinquents to be transferred to adult court o Punishments for delinquents were to be consistent with how a parent would discipline a child this provided judges with increased sentencing discretion and options (e.g foster care, fines, etc) o Parents were encouraged to be part of the judicial process as well. Despite great optimism for the JDA, services to be provided to delinquents as outlined in the JDA were not always available, some youths were denied their rights (e.g right to counsel and the right to appeal) due to the systems informality, and the broad definition of delinquency included acts that were not illegal for adults. The JDA was replaced by the Young Offenders Act (YOA) in 1984 o Youths had to be at least 12 years old (and up to 18 years old) to be processed through the justice system. Children under 12yrs were dealt with through child and family services. www.notesolution.com o The YOA allowed for youth cases to be diverted (Diversion: a decision not prosecute the young offender but rather have him or her undergo an education or community service program) for this to occur, the young offender would have to plead guilty. o Two types of custody are available: open (placing the youth in a community residential facility, group, home, childcare facility, or wilderness camp) or secure (incarcerating the youth in a prison facility). Bill C-37 changed section 16 of the YOA. With this amendment, 16 and 17 yrs old charged with murder, manslaughter, or aggravated sexual assault, would go to adult court. Youth Crime Rates Though crimes committed by youths are decreasing, probation is the most frequent sentence imposed (approx. 63% of youths receive probation) Assessment of Young Offenders There are two levels of consent a clinician will obtain before commencing the assessment of a child or adolescent o Consent from the parents orand the consent from the child or adolescent Childrens and youths emotional and behavioural difficulties can be categorized as internalizing (emotional difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and obsessions) and externalizing (behavioural problems such as delinquency, fighting, and bullying problems) o Externalizing problems are more difficult to treat and more likely to have long term persistence o Externalizing disorders have been known to be quite stable, though symptoms peak in he teenage years and decrease in the late 20s. o Internalizing problems can co-occur with externalizing problems. To assess externalizing problems. A number of informants (e.g. parents, peers, teachers) are needed to obtain information concerning their behaviour that the child or youth may not be aware of. o It is important that the behaviour s viewed within a development context that is, while rebelling against rules may be normative for adolescents, a www.notesolution.com
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