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Chapter 3

PSYC39H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Juvenile Delinquency, Social Control Theory, Social Learning Theory

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David Nussbaum

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Chapter 3: Theories of Crime Learning and Enviro
LEARNING AND ENVIRO theories focus on:
o 1) lack of parental supervision
o 2) procriminal role models
o 3) +ve reinforcement from friends
Theory Perspectives:
Theories of unconscious mind
Defence mechanisms
Therapeutic techniques:
o Free association
o Dream interpretations
Personality = development of 5 psychosexual stages:
o 1) oral
o 2) anal
o 3) phallic
o 4) latent
o 5) genital
ID = unconscious, primitive instincts = pleasure principle
EGO = reality principle
SUPEREGO = internalize group standards
o Conscience
o Ego-ideal
Criminal beh = inadequate super-ego formation
o 1) harsh superego neurotic criminal
o 2) weak superego psychopathic criminal
o 3) deviant superego superego standards developed BUT
those standards reflect deviant identification- identify with
deviant role model
Humans are inherently anti-social, pleasure-seeking, destructive impulsive
Abrahemsen crime = psychodynamic
Set of psychic structures that develops thru childhood & adolescence forms
dynamic personality systems
1) Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation
o Popular for how juvenile delinquency develops
o Disruption of mom-child relation = inability to establish
meaningful relations
2) Gluek & Gluek unravelling juvenile delinquency
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o Did cross-sectional research = compared lives of juvie
delinquents to non-delinquents
o Multi-disciplinary approach; also longitudinal
o Delinquent = mesomorphic (strong/muscular), energetic,
restless, uninhibited expression
o Attribute to parenting factors
o Said they could predict who would become delinquent BUT
failed to take into account base rate of delinquency and
temporal order of events (causation not supported)
3) Hirschi’s Ctrl Theory aka social control theory aka social bond theory
o General theory of crime = self-control
o Wondered why more ppl DON’T violate the law
o Superego/ego mechanism = control impulses
o 4 types of social bonds to promote socialization & conformity:
1) attachment (rep ego-ideal
2) commitment (rep ego)
3) involvement
4) belief (rep super-ego conscience)
4) Hirshi and Gottfredson
o More refined, parsimonious general control theory
o Instead of focusing on the indirect controlling effects of social
bonds as in the original; this general theory of crime proposes
that self-control is internalized early in life = primary
determinant of crime
o Opportunity to commit crime is also impt
o Low self-ctrl in the presence of criminal opportunities
prevalence for crime & other analogous anti-soc beh
Short-lived, immediate gratification, easy, simply,
o Self-ctrl depends on quality of parenting
Monitoring & recogniztion of deviant beh + punishment
o Self-ctrl = only 19% of variance in crime
o Social learning variables are ALSO impt predictors of crime =
these social learning variables were not considered in learning
theories of crime
o Parental efficacy = mother’s attachment to child = significant
predictor of youth’s self-control
o Criticism for this self-control theory presented by Akers this
theory is tautological (circular reasoning)
We have no natural, inherent impulse to act anti-socially; this is unlike what
psychodynamic theories state
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