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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC85H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher

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Chapter 3: The Nineteenth-Century Transformation of Psychology
Introduction
At beginning of 19th century many believed pysch could not be science, by end of 19th,
was more possible
Herbart tried to explain psych mathematically
Fechners innovation was:
oPsychophysics: experiments that have mathematical relation between
stimulus and sensation
J.F. Herbart (1776-1841)
Believed math was applicable to psych. Events
Made thresholds impt for psych
Threshold of consciousness:
oEvents below are unconscious
oEvents above are conscious
Mental life is interaction of elementary ideas
oE.g. blue, sour
oDifferent from association because ideas can oppose each other
Ideas that arent the same can reduce intensity of the other
Can facilitate/inhibit
Assumed intensity can be quantified
oE.g. equation can be made on how A effects B
One idea cant push another away, can only limit (inhibit)
Thought ideas could be pushed into unconscious (below threshold of consciousness)
Apperceptive mass: Combining of ideas that agree and reject ones that disagree
Ideas that want to be conscious is source of emotions
oUnwanted ideas in consciousness are unpleasant
Ideas are fluid and always moving
Apperception: When mind is aware of ideas
oCan vary so ideas can be understood later
Herbarts Influence on Educational Psychology
Believed education should instill values
Believes psych could help educate
Education psychology:
oLaid out rules for instruction, evolved into 5 ways
Preparation have to engage apperceptive mass.
E.g. give summary pts. so they are not distracted by what was
to be learned and focus on material
www.notesolution.com
Presentation keep interested, because interest is > knowledge. When
we have both we want to expand knowledge
Association point out similarities and contrast in topics
Generalization associations have to be organized
Application should have purpose and can be applied
Herbarts main impacts:
oThreshold of consciousness ideas could move back and forth
oApplied math to psychology
oApplying psych to education
G.T. Fechner (1801-87)
Gustav Theodor Fechner:
oWas in medicine and physics, but damage to eyes from experiments made him
switch to psychology
Psychophysics
Panpsychism: mind (soul) influences everything in universe
oEverything has a soul
oAll organisms are related
Believed physical impacted mental and vice versa
oE.g. nervous system and consciousness
Psychophysical parallelism: soul and body are parallel
oled to inner psychophysics (relation btw body & mind)
most famous for outer psychophysics
orel btw experiences and external world
e.g. stimulus magnitude and intensity of sensation
obelieved this could be express w/ math
accepted variance, but general laws apply
oe.g. of general law relation of exp. to magnitude of stimulus
Webers Law: Diff between two stimuli is perceived as equal if ratio of addition is
same
Just Noticeable Difference: Amount needed for subject to notice change
Fechners 3 methods for making psychophysics measurements:
oMethod of just noticeable diff
oMethod of right and wrong cases(constant stimuli): varying magnitudes
oMethod of average error subject controls stim. (similar to constant stim)
results are averaged
Point of subjective equality: point where lines look equal
Allowed ppl to measure thresholds
If we dont think sensation is quantifiable, psychophysics doesnt make sense
Quantity objection: Objection to assumption that senses can be numbers
ob/c number is arbitrary, no meaning in itself
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 3: The Nineteenth-Century Transformation of Psychology Introduction At beginning of 19 century many believed pysch could not be science, by end of 19 ,h was more possible Herbart tried to explain psych mathematically Fechners innovation was: o Psychophysics: experiments that have mathematical relation between stimulus and sensation J.F. Herbart (1776-1841) Believed math was applicable to psych. Events Made thresholds impt for psych Threshold of consciousness: o Events below are unconscious o Events above are conscious Mental life is interaction of elementary ideas o E.g. blue, sour o Different from association because ideas can oppose each other Ideas that arent the same can reduce intensity of the other Can facilitateinhibit Assumed intensity can be quantified o E.g. equation can be made on how A effects B One idea cant push another away, can only limit (inhibit) Thought ideas could be pushed into unconscious (below threshold of consciousness) Apperceptive mass: Combining of ideas that agree and reject ones that disagree Ideas that want to be conscious is source of emotions o Unwanted ideas in consciousness are unpleasant Ideas are fluid and always moving Apperception: When mind is aware of ideas o Can vary so ideas can be understood later Herbarts Influence on Educational Psychology Believed education should instill values Believes psych could help educate Education psychology: o Laid out rules for instruction, evolved into 5 ways Preparation have to engage apperceptive mass. E.g. give summary pts. so they are not distracted by what was to be learned and focus on material www.notesolution.com
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