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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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School
University of Toronto Scarborough
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Kacy Singh October 12, 2010 Chapter 4: Biology of Behaviour The Brain and Its Components Structure of the Nervous system N 3 major functions: (a) Controlling behaviour (b) Processing and retaining the information we receive from environments (c) #0J:O,9L3J-485K8L4O4JL.,O574.08808 N Central nervous system: made up of the brain and spinal cord o Communicates with rest of body through nerves bundles of fibres that transmit information in and out of the central nervous system o Peripheral Nervous system: nerves attached to spinal cord and base of brain sensory information conveyed from sensory organs to brain and spinal cord o Cranial Nerves: located at base of brain; information from head and neck region reaches brain through these nerves o Spinal Nerves: sensory information from the rest of the body reaches the spinal cord and brain through these nerves ** cranial and spinal nerves also carry information away from the brain as the brain controls muscles , etc. N Human brain has three major parts (pg 92, figure 4.2): (a) The Brain Stem: primarily controls physiological functions and automatic behaviours (b) The Cerebellum: attached to the back of the brain system, controls and coordinates movements (c) The Cerebral Hemispheres: pair constitutes largest part of the human brain; developed more recently and still have a lot of unknown features N Brain and spinal cord are protected very well; brain is encased in a skull while the spinal cord runs through a column of hollow bones known as vertebrae N Meninges: 3 layer membrane structure which encloses both brain and spinal cord o Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): a liquid that fills the space between the two Meninges, providing liquid cushioning which surrounds the brain and spinal cord protecting them from being bruised by the bones that encase them N Blood Brain Barrier: a barrier between the blood and the brain produced by the cells in the Z,OO8419K0-7,L38.,5LOO,7L08570;039884208:-89,3.0817425,88L3J17429K0-O44L394 the brain prevents toxic chemicals from entering the brain which could harm the neurons 1 www.notesolution.com Kacy Singh October 12, 2010 N Cerebral Cortex or Grey Matter: covers the surface of the cerebral hemispheres o Contains billions of nerve cells where perceptions take place, memories are stored and plans are formulated and executed o White matter: a set of nerve fibres which connect the Cortex to other parts of the brain N Cerebral cortex is very wrinkled; therefore more surface area which enables lots of nerve cells to be contained there o Gyri: bulges (fat parts sticking out) o Fissures: groves (indents) Cells of the Nervous System N Neurons: nerve cells which are the elements of the nervous system; bring sensory information to brain, store memories, reach decisions, and control the activity of the muscles N Neurons can receive messages through other neurons, process the information and proceed the information to other neurons N Glia: assist neurons in their task; help neurons get from place of birth to final resting place, manufacture chemicals that the neurons need to perform tasks, protect neurons from invading micro-organisms (LIKE THE NEURONS MOTHER!!) N Dendrites: tree-like growths attached to the nerve cell, so it can receive messages from other neurons 97,382L9L31472,9L434Z39K097:3N94.0OO-4 N Soma: cell body; largest part of the neuron and contains mechanisms that control the metabolism and maintenance of the cell N Axon: nerve fibre which carries messages away from soma after it has made a decision to other neurons for communication purposes the messages are called action potentials o Myelin Sheath: substance which coats the axon o Prevents axons from colliding with one another and therefore scrambling messages o Also increases action potential o Action potential is caused by the opening of some ion channels in the axon membrane by the end of the axon nearest the soma; charges reverese and cause other ion channels to open up (domino effect) until the terminal button is reached N Terminal Buttons: O4.,90,99K003419K09ZLJ8ZK0709K0-7,3.K411 o Neurotransmitter: chemical secreted by terminal button whenever action potentials are sent down the axon; affects chemical of the other cells with which the neuron communicates 2 www.notesolution.com
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