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Chapter 2

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PSYA01 311010 1:30 PM WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY psychology: a science- a science with a special focus on causes of behaviour. - coming from 2 greek words, psukhe=breathsoul, logos=wordreason - modern meaning psycho=mind, logy=science. - people used to think the mind was a free floating spirit, was later considered to be the characteristic of the brain whose ultimate function is to control behaviour. - events that cause other events (or behaviour) are known as causal events. - different types of psychologists will have different levels of explanation to behaviours. - level refers to a choice of causes to study and methods of research to use - 1 reason for studying psych: human behaviour is the root of many of the worlds problems: poverty, crime, over pop., drug addiction, bigotryetc FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY Areas of Psychological Research: research psychologists differ in 2 principle ways: 1. Types of behaviour they investigate, and the causal events they analyze. Physiological psychology - exams the physiology of behaviour, esp. nervous system - study almost all behavioural phenomina that can be observed in non-humans. Comparative psychology - the study of the behaviour of members of a variety of species in an attempt to explain behaviour in terms of evolutionary adaptation to the environment. - Likely to study inherited behavioural patterns Behaviour analysis - Branch of psychology that studies the effect of env. Events on behaviour - Primarily interested in learning and motivation - Relationship btw the behaviour and some consequent event is an important cause of a specific behaviour. (behaviours wpleasant outcomes tend to be repeated & vice versa) Behaviour genetics - Studies the role of genetics on behaviour. No 2 brains are exactly alike - Examines similarities in physical and behavioural characteristics of blood relatives, as well as breeding experiments to see what behaviours can be transmitted to offsprings. www.notesolution.com
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