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Chapter 1-4


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Steve Joordens

PLEASE DO NOT COPYCHAPTER 1 The Science of Psychology What Does a Psychologist DoResearch teaching counseling psychotherapyAdvise industry and governmental agencies about personnel matters design of products advertising and marketing legislationThey make up and perform tests for personality achievement and abilityThey study different things physiological processes of the nervous system genetics environmental events personality mental abilities social interactionsPsychology is a new discipline the first psychologist lived into the 1920s What Is PsychologyPsychology a science with a special focus on behavior discovering and explaining the causes of behaviorThese discoveries then lead to treatment for psychological disorders and improving the societyBut what we focus on is how psychologists made their discoveries The word psychology comes from two Greek words psukhe breath or soul and logos word or reasonThe modern meaning psycho mind and logy sciencescience of the mind but it is really the science of behavior Over time what psychologists have thought about the mind has changedFirst they thought of it as an independent freefloating spiritThen they said it was a characteristic of a functioning brain whose main role is to control behaviorSo before psychology was about the mind something we cant observe and now its more about behavior something we CAN observeSince the brain is the organ that contains the mind and controls behavior psychology also involves studying the brain How Is Behavior StudiedPsychology to understand human behavior why do people do what they doFirst step describe the behaviors be familiar with the things people do and categorizemeasure them so that psychologists in different places can know they are observing the same thingsSecond step find out the causes to these behaviors what are the events responsibleif this part is done then it means we have explained the behaviorCausal events events that cause other events such as behavior to occur There are different kinds of behavior and different levels of explanationEx of different kinds of behavior studying how vision and movement is coordinated vs courtship thNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth PLEASE DO NOT COPY Ex of different levels of explanation its the same behavior but looking at it from a literal sense or a metaphorical sense looking at physiological causes vs explaining using hypothetical mental states like anger or fearOr you could only look at how events in the environment causes a behavior to occur Why Is Behavior StudiedWhy do we study behavior vs studying a nonobservable mindAns Human behavior is the root for many world problems War and conflictpoverty and hungerstarvationLack of exercise drugs stressful lifestyleshealth problemsPolluting habitsglobal warming and acid rainOther examples overpopulation bigotry oppression terrorismPsychology tries to solve these problems Psychology is also related to other sciences in the way that a discovery in another science may need psychology to help implement itBritish explorer James Cook knew that sauerkraut prevented scurvy but sailors didnt like itHe forced the officers to eat it increasing the status of the sauerkraut and soon the sailors wanted this privilege too and scurvy became not as common Fields of PsychologyScientists in psychology discover causes of behaviorsApplied psychology applying psychological discoveries to the solutions to worldly problemsSome psychologists do both Areas of Psychological ResearchMost research psychologists colleges universities or employed by privategovernmental research laboratoriesResearch psychologists differ by1 the types of behavior they investigate2 the causal events they analyzeSo they explain different types of behaviors and they explain it in terms of different types of causesEx Two people both study the behavior of memory but one explains it using physiological causal events and the other explains it using environmental events To show the different areas of psychological research we will take a look at drug abuse from different points of views Physiological PsychologyFocuses on thephysiology of behaviorThey explain things by looking at the organisms physiology especially the brain thNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth PLEASE DO NOT COPY Learning memory sensory processes emotional behavior motivation sexual behavior and sleepThose are studied in nonhumans and then serves as a model to help explain human behavior On drug abuseAll drugs have the potential for addiction because it acts on a part of the brain that is involved with our reactions to pleasurable events food warmth sexSome drugs can artificially activate this systemKnowing how drugs affect the brain can lead to medications to help break habits Comparative PsychologyThe study of the behavior of members of a species to try to explain behavior in terms of evolutionary adaptation to the environmentTopics studied are similar to those of physiological psychologistsStudy inherited behavioral patterns courting mating predation defensive and parental behaviors On drug abuseThey tested many different mammals and found that they react like humans do with addictive drugsTest animals are addicted if they are able to control the amount injected into their vein Behavior AnalysisWhat is the effect of environmental events on behaviorFocus on learning and motivationThey think that the cause of a behavior is related to the relationship between the behavior and the consequent eventEx if there are pleasant outcomes the behavior will be repeatedResearch is done in labs schools homes businessesapplied to teaching business management psychotherapy On drug abuseThey found methods for studying the way that pleasurable events make people repeat certain behaviorsThe negative effects of using drugs are learned ex withdrawal symptomsFound methods of seeing if a new drug has the potential to make people addicted Behavior GeneticsThey study the role of genetics in behaviorThey examine similarities in the physical and behavioral characteristics of blood relativesThey perform breeding experiments with lab animals to see which types of behavior can be passed down to the next generation thNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth
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