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Canada (158,169)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYA01H3 (1,196)
Steve Joordens (1,052)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA01H3 2010-10-17 CHAPTER 1: THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY What is Psychology? Psychology: the scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also, the application o the findings of psychological research to the solution of problems The word psychology comes from the Greek words psukhe ~^Z_}^Z}o_Llogos ~^}_}^Z}L_ The modern words psycho ~^K]L_LJlogy ~^Z ]L _KL]L2^ZZ ]L }ZK]L_7Z]Z that psychology is actually a science of behaviour @}^o]L_Z]}7}LKZ]Zdescribe it: N Become familiar with the things people (animals) do N Categorize various behaviours and learn to measure them to be sure that others can also study the same phenomena Then, one must discover the causes of the behaviour being observed J if we can discover the events that ZZ]}7ZLZ^o]L_] Causal events: an event that causes another event to occur Psychologists are interested in different kinds of behaviour and in different levels of explanation J ^ooZ_} level of analysis refer to a common choice of causes to study and methods of research to use What is the purpose of this quest for explanation? N Intellectual curiosity N Shows us how to solve our most important and pressing problems Z]}]Z}L}Z}}Z}KL}Z}o[Z}oKZ There are strong relationships between behaviour and...: N Health J knowing what these are can improve well-being N Remembering N Personal relationships N Learning Fields of Psychology Applied psychologists: applying what their scientific colleagues have learned to the solution of problems in the world outside of the laboratory Research psychologists differ from each other in two key ways: in the types of behaviour they study and in the causal events they analyze Physiological psychology: studies the physiological basis of behaviour all behaviours in nonhuman animals N @Z}2L]ZK[ZZZ]}o}27Z ]oo]ZL}ZZZK7]ZZ}]oo}oL]}L www.notesolution.comPSYA01H3 2010-10-17 Comparative psychology: studies the behaviour of members of a variety of species in an attempt to explain behaviour in terms of evolutionary adaptation to the environment N Likely to study inherited behavioural patterns such as courting and mating, predation and aggression, defensive behaviour, and parental behaviour Behaviour genetics: studies the role of genetics in behaviour N Examines similarities in psychical and behavioural traits in blood relatives N Perform breeding experiments with laboratory animals to see what aspects of behaviour can be transmitted to offspring N Can even alter parts of the gene during experiments to determine how differences in genetic code relate to behavioural differences among animals Cognitive psychology: studies mental processes and complex behaviours such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation, and problem solving N Believe that the events that cause behaviour consist of functions of the human brain that occur in response to environmental eventstimuli N Explanations involve characteristics of inferred mental processes, such as imagery, attention, and mechanisms of language N Biology of cognition is still not mainstream, but is helped by brain scanning technology Cognitive neuroscience: attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanisms that are responsible for them N One principal research technique is to study the behaviour of people whose brains have been damaged by natural causes such as diseases, strokes, or tumours Developmental psychology: studies the changes in behavioural, perceptual, cognitive, social, and emotional capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience N Some dev. psych. study phenomena of adolescence or adulthoodLin particular, the effects of aging N Causal events studied = physiological processes, cognitive processes, and social influences Social psychology: ZZ]Z Z}oZ}L}LL}Z[ZZ]} N Explore phenomena such as perception (of oneself and of others), cause-and-effect relations in human interactions, attitudes and opinions, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, and emotional behaviour (including aggression and sexual behaviour) Personality psychology: attempts to categorize and understand causes of individual differences in temperament and patterns of behaviour N >}}l} ZoLZ]LZ}L[ZZ]Z}Lboth genetic and environmental N Some pers. psych. are closely allied with social psych. N Others work on problems related to adjustment to society and therefore help applied psych. Evolutionary psychology: explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that specific behaviours provided during the evolution of a species J use natural selection as a guiding principle N Their task is to trace the development of such differences and to explore how their adaptive advantages might explain the behaviour of modern humans Cross-cultural psychology: studies the impact of culture on behaviour N Diff. cultures must adapt to diff. environments J study the interaction bw biological & cultural factors www.notesolution.com
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