Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)


11 Pages
Unlock Document

Steve Joordens

PSYA01H3 2010-10-17 CHAPTER 1: THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY What is Psychology? Psychology: the scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also, the application o the findings of psychological research to the solution of problems The word psychology comes from the Greek words psukhe ~^Z_}^Z}o_Llogos ~^}_}^Z}L_ The modern words psycho ~^K]L_LJlogy ~^Z ]L _KL]L2^ZZ ]L }ZK]L_7Z]Z that psychology is actually a science of behaviour @}^o]L_Z]}7}LKZ]Zdescribe it: N Become familiar with the things people (animals) do N Categorize various behaviours and learn to measure them to be sure that others can also study the same phenomena Then, one must discover the causes of the behaviour being observed J if we can discover the events that ZZ]}7ZLZ^o]L_] Causal events: an event that causes another event to occur Psychologists are interested in different kinds of behaviour and in different levels of explanation J ^ooZ_} level of analysis refer to a common choice of causes to study and methods of research to use What is the purpose of this quest for explanation? N Intellectual curiosity N Shows us how to solve our most important and pressing problems Z]}]Z}L}Z}}Z}KL}Z}o[Z}oKZ There are strong relationships between behaviour and...: N Health J knowing what these are can improve well-being N Remembering N Personal relationships N Learning Fields of Psychology Applied psychologists: applying what their scientific colleagues have learned to the solution of problems in the world outside of the laboratory Research psychologists differ from each other in two key ways: in the types of behaviour they study and in the causal events they analyze Physiological psychology: studies the physiological basis of behaviour all behaviours in nonhuman animals N @Z}2L]ZK[ZZZ]}o}27Z ]oo]ZL}ZZZK7]ZZ}]oo}oL]}L www.notesolution.comPSYA01H3 2010-10-17 Comparative psychology: studies the behaviour of members of a variety of species in an attempt to explain behaviour in terms of evolutionary adaptation to the environment N Likely to study inherited behavioural patterns such as courting and mating, predation and aggression, defensive behaviour, and parental behaviour Behaviour genetics: studies the role of genetics in behaviour N Examines similarities in psychical and behavioural traits in blood relatives N Perform breeding experiments with laboratory animals to see what aspects of behaviour can be transmitted to offspring N Can even alter parts of the gene during experiments to determine how differences in genetic code relate to behavioural differences among animals Cognitive psychology: studies mental processes and complex behaviours such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation, and problem solving N Believe that the events that cause behaviour consist of functions of the human brain that occur in response to environmental eventstimuli N Explanations involve characteristics of inferred mental processes, such as imagery, attention, and mechanisms of language N Biology of cognition is still not mainstream, but is helped by brain scanning technology Cognitive neuroscience: attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanisms that are responsible for them N One principal research technique is to study the behaviour of people whose brains have been damaged by natural causes such as diseases, strokes, or tumours Developmental psychology: studies the changes in behavioural, perceptual, cognitive, social, and emotional capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience N Some dev. psych. study phenomena of adolescence or adulthoodLin particular, the effects of aging N Causal events studied = physiological processes, cognitive processes, and social influences Social psychology: ZZ]Z Z}oZ}L}LL}Z[ZZ]} N Explore phenomena such as perception (of oneself and of others), cause-and-effect relations in human interactions, attitudes and opinions, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, and emotional behaviour (including aggression and sexual behaviour) Personality psychology: attempts to categorize and understand causes of individual differences in temperament and patterns of behaviour N >}}l} ZoLZ]LZ}L[ZZ]Z}Lboth genetic and environmental N Some pers. psych. are closely allied with social psych. N Others work on problems related to adjustment to society and therefore help applied psych. Evolutionary psychology: explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that specific behaviours provided during the evolution of a species J use natural selection as a guiding principle N Their task is to trace the development of such differences and to explore how their adaptive advantages might explain the behaviour of modern humans Cross-cultural psychology: studies the impact of culture on behaviour N Diff. cultures must adapt to diff. environments J study the interaction bw biological & cultural factors www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for PSYA01H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.