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Chp. 1 textbook

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Steve Joordens

PSY Exam Prep – Chap 1 - psychology comes from the Greek words: “psukhe” soul/breath and “logos” reason/word Fields of Psychology: • physiological psychology – examines the physiology of behaviour especially the nervous system; also studies behaviour in animals including memory, learning, sensory processes, sexual behaviour, motivation • comparative psychology – studies behaviours of different organisms to understand the adaptive and functional significance • behaviour analysis – effect of environment on behaviour; cause and effect* • behaviour genetics – studies the role of genetics in behaviour • cognitive psychology – study of the complex behaviour and processes such as perception, learning, attention • cognitive neuroscience – studies the psychological functions by looking at brain and mechanisms that are responsible for them • developmental psychology – changes in behavioural as a function of age and experience • social psychology – the affects people have on each other’s behaviour • personality psychology – studies individual differences and patterns of behaviour • evolutionary psychology – studies in terms of adaptive advantages that specific behaviours have during the evolution; natural selection* • cross-cultural – studies the effects different cultures have on behaviour • clinical psychology – studies the treatment of abnormal behaviour and disorders Psychologists: • Rene Descartes – RATIONALISM – pursuit of truth through reason o believed in dualism – the belief that the mind and the body are separate; which are mind and matter o called the father modern of philosophy o rationalization – perceive the world through reason; through sensory perceptions (eyes, ears, nose, mouth) o humans are machines affected by natural causes and produces natural effects; God created the world and ‘let it be’ o example: hot object with finger – natural reflex, the mind does not have to think about it o what set him apart from others who believed in dualism, was that he believed there was a causal link that existed between the mind and the body – mind controls the body and the body tells the mind what is happening in the environment
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