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Canada (158,336)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA01H3 (1,196)
Steve Joordens (1,052)
Chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter4SensationandPerception41SensationandPerceptionataGlanceSwitching of perspectives is a perceptual phenomenon that takes place in the brainSENSINGTHEWORLDAROUNDUSBody has specialized processes that allow us to take in the outside worldSENSATION the process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those into neural signalsRaw information of what we sense is sent to the brain where perception occursPERCEPTION involves attending to organizing and interpreting stimuli that we senseSensation leads to perception when specialized sensory receptors are stiumulatedReceptors spread over surface of the skin inside of the eye over the tongue and nasal cavity within the earTRANSDUCTION process in which physical or chemical stimulation is converted into a nerve impulse thats relayed to the brainPatterns of light hit retinaconverted to nerve impulses that travel to brain centersSensory receptors most responsive upon initial exposure to a stimulusSENSORY ADAPTATION reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a stimulusStimulusThresholdsWilliam Gustav Fechner coined PSYCHOPHYSICS the field of study that explores how physical energy such as light and sound and their intensity relate to psychological experiencePopular approach to understand perception measure the minimum amount of a stimulus needed for detection and the degree to which a stimulus must change in strength for the change to be perceptibleABSOLUTE THRESHOLD minimum amount of energyquantity of a stimulus required for it to be reliable detected 50 of the time it is presentedDIFFERENCE THRESHOLD smallest detectable difference between stimuliWhether you detect a difference just noticeable difference depends on the intensity of the original stimulusThe more intense originally the more of it that must be added for the difference threshold to be reachedStudy of stimulations has its limitationsCommunications by selfreportHow do we confirm whether the stimuli were truly perceived or if the individuals were guessingSignalDetectionSIGNAL DETECTION THEORY states that whether a stimulus is perceived depends on both sensory experience and judgment made by the subject2 processes sensory and decisionResearch shows that motivational changes are likely to affect the decision processSensory judgment process has 4 possible outcomesSometimes you think you heard sth thats not therefalse alarmMissfail to notice sth thats really therePERCEIVINGTHEWORLDAROUNDUSTo perceive figures our perceptual systems make sense of ambiguity and fill in info where it seems to be missingSubjectivephysically not there but exist in your brainGestaltPrinciplesofPerceptionGestalt psychology an approach to perception that emphasizes the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Objects in our environment tend to stand out against a background figureground principleProximity and similarity2 objects that are in close proximity to each other treated as a groupContinuitylines and other objects tend to be continuous rather than abruptly changing directionClosuretendency to fill in gaps to complete a whole objectTopdownandBottomupProcessingTOPDOWN PROCESSING occurs when prior knowledge and expectations guide what is perceived
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