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Canada (161,621)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 8

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Steve Joordens

Chapter881TheOrganizationofKnowledgePsychologists are interested in how to keep track of the knowledge amassed during our lifetimesCONCEPTSANDCATEGORIESUsed for memory decision makingConceptmental representation of an object event or ideaVery few independent conceptsoEach concept can be divided into smaller groups with more precise labelsCategoriesrefer to clusters of interrelated conceptsoForm groups via categorization ClassicalCategoriesDefinitionsandRulesClassical categorizationclaims that objects or events are categorized according to a certain set of rules or by a specific set of featuresDefinitions explain how ppl categorization in certain situationCC doesnt tell the full story of how categorization worksoUse variety of cognitive processes in determining which objects fit which categoryMajor problemgraded membershipthe observation that some concepts appear to make better category members than othersSentenceverification techniquevolunteers wait for sentence to appear in front of them and respond as fast as they can with a yesno answerModer approach must explainhow best examples influence categorizationPrototypesCategorizationbyComparisonPrototypesmental representations of an average category memberAllow for classification by resemblanceNo rulesdefinitions are involved Help explain why some category members make better examples than othersWe can follow either approach depending on the situationoFew major distinctionsresemblanceoComplicationrulesNetworksandHierarchiesSemantic networkinterconnected set of nodesconcepts and the links that join them form a categoryNodescircles that represent conceptsLinksconnect them together to represent the structure as well as rep the relationshipsHierarchystructure moving from general to very specificoIdentifies basic level categorylocated in the middle row of the diagramBasic level categories are uniqueoUsed most often in conversationoEasiest to pronounceoLevel at which prototypes existoLevel at which most thinking existPrimingandSemanticNetworksPrimingactivation of individual concepts in longterm memoryMay cause you to become aware of a related conceptOther times priming makes you more sensitive to specific conceptsCan test for it through reactiontime or lexical decision taskPriming occurs in everyday lifeCULTUREANDCATEGORIESLinguistic relativity Whorfian hypothesistheory that the language we encounter and use determines how we understand the worldFirst introduced by Benjamin WhorfoWhorf was charged with investigating fires for an insurance company
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