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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Exam Notes - PSYA01

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 3 Biological PsychologyBY DAVE S 2014Sunday May 11 2014302 PM31 Genetic and Evolutionary Perspectives on BehaviourGenesare the basic units of heredity they are responsible for guiding the process of creating the proteins that make up our physical structurs and regulate development and physiological processes throughout the life spanChromosomesGenes are organized along chromosomesAre structures in the cellular nucleus that are lined with all of the genes an individual inheritsDNADeoxyribonucleic acidA molecule formed in a doublehelix shape that contains 4 amino acids adenine cytosine guanine thymine ACGTGenotypeRefers to the genetic makeup of an organismThe unique set of genes that compose every chromosome represents the genotype of the individualPhenotypeConsists of the observable characteristics including physical structures and behavioursHomozygousIf 2 corresponding genes at a given location on a pair of chromosomes are the same they are homozygousHeterozygousIf the two genes differ they are heterozygous Whether a trait is expressed depends on which combination of pairs is inherited DOMINANTRECESSIVE GENEBehavioural GeneticsIs the study of how genes and environment influence behaviourMonozygotic twinsCome from a single ovum egg which makes them genetically identicalDizygotic TwinsAka fraternal twins come from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells that share the same wombHeritabilityA statistic expressed as a number between zero and one that represents the degree to which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behaviour or trait found in a population heritability of 0 means that genes do not contribute to individual differences in a trait whereas heritability of 10 indicates that genes account for all individual differences in a traitBehavioural GenomicsIs the study of DNA and the ways in which specific genes are related to behaviourHuman Genome ProjectUsing behavioural genomics trying to identify components of the entire human genome resulted in the identification of approximately 30000 genesAdaptationsAdaptive traits contribute to survival health and sexual behaviour individuals with these adaptive traits are more likely to pass on their genes to the next generationEvolutionThe change in the frequency of genes occurring in an interbreeding population over generationsNatural SelectionProcess by which favourable traits become increasingly common in a population of interbreeding individuals while traits that are unfavourable become less commonSerotoninBrain chemical related to mood and imbalances of it are associated with depression one identified gene is responsible for the absorption of serotonin in nerve cells short and longResearchers have found that people who inherit two copies of the short version are at greater risk for developing depression whereas those who inherit two long copies are at far less risk32 How the Nervous System Works Cells and NeurotransmittersNeurotoxicvenom of the taipan snake is neurotoxic meaning that it can specifically attacks cells of the nervous systemNeuronsOne of the major types of cells found in the nervous system which are responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the bodyCell BodyAlso known as the soma is the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus that houses the cells genetic material Genes in the cell body synthesize proteins that form the chemicals and structures that allow the neuron to functionDendritesThe small branches radiating from the cell body receive messages from other cells and transmit the message toward the cell bodyAxonThe axon is the structure that transports information from the neuron to neighboring neurons in the form of electrochemical reactions at the end of the axon are axon terminalsNeurotransmittersWithin the axon terminals are chemicals called neurotransmitters the chemicals that function as messengers allowing neurons to communicate with each otherSynapsesNeurotransmitters are released across synapses the microscopically small spaces that separate individual nerve cellsSensory Neu
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