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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology

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Steve Joordens

Aqdas Qasem Intro to Psychology Textbook Notes Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology September 19 , 2010 Pag Notes e 5 What is Psychology? Psychology is considered a science - a science with a special focus on behaviour. (Psychology The Science of Behaviour 4E, 5) Discovering and explaining causes of behaviour (why people do what they do) is the primary focus. There is a lot of emphasis put to this when explaining psychology. The word psychology is derived from two Greek words: psukhe meaning breath or soul and logos meaning word or reason. The modernized meaning of psyucho- is mind and logy is science. Why Behaviour is Studied: If we can discover the events that caused the behaviour, we have explained it (5) Casual events: Events that cause other events (including behaviour) to occur An important reason for studying human behaviour is that human behaviour is the root to many of the worlds problems (i.e. poverty, war, terrorism, crime, and etc.). 6 Fields of Psychology: Physiological psychology examines the physiology of behaviour (6). The organisms physiology especially its nervous system is taken to be the appropriate level of reason/explanation. Physiological psychologists study almost every behavioural phenomena that can be observed in non-human animals, including learning, memory. Sensory processes, emotional behaviour, motivation, sexual behaviour, and sleep (6). Comparative Psychology studies the behaviour of different species in order to try and explain the behaviour of species in terms of evolutionary adaptations to environments. 7 Behaviour Analysis studies how the behaviour is affected by the environment. Believe that an important cause of certain behaviour is the relationship between a consequent event in the organisms past and the behaviour. They have played a role in the study of drug addiction because they created methods that study how pleasurable events (including effects of drugs) lead many individuals to repeating the certain behaviour The role that genetics play in the behaviour of an organism is a branch of psychology called Behaviour Genetics The genes we get from our parents not only determine our physical characteristics, but also make a blueprint of a human brain. No two brains are identical Behaviour genetics is studied by examining similarities and behavioural characteristics of people who are blood-related because their genes are similar. Also they study what aspects of behaviour can be transmitted to an offspring (through laboratory animals and experiments)\Behaviour geneticist also have a role in the study of drug addiction: they compare drug-susceptible animals to ones that do not tend to become addicted may help understand the psychological mechanisms involved in drug dependence. Page 1 www.notesolution.comAqdas Qasem Intro to Psychology Textbook Notes Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology The study of mental processes and complex behaviours (i.e. attention, memory, and etc.) is called Cognitive Psychology. Some cognitive psychologists have begun to work with neurologists in brain scanning. Created many tests that are useful in assessing behavioural and cognitive deficits caused by abnormal brain functions. Development Psychology: study of physical, cognitive, emotional, and social growth, mainly of children (i.e. effects of aging) 8 - Development psychologists have helped us understand how drug-taking behaviour alters over the course of ones life. - Social Psychology is how people affect people (i.e. perception, human interactions, and etc.) - Personality Psychology is how peoples personality and patterns of behaviour are different/vary. - They look for casual events in a persons history (genetic and environmental) - Closely related to social psychologis
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