Textbook Notes (362,755)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA01H3 (1,192)
Steve Joordens (1,048)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 2 The Way and Means of Psychology The Scientific Method in Psychology -scientific method rules procedures that scientists follow in research -based on logic and common sense -originally devised by philosophers -psychologists conduct 3 major types of scientific research 1. Naturalistic Observation & Clinical Observation -observation of people & animals 1) natural environment, 2) undergoing treatment, 3) diagnosis for a psychological condition -provided foundations of biological & social science -for example, Darwin`s classification of animals, plants, fossil theory of evolution Montessori watched children in classroom idea about child development Broca`s treatment of his patient who could not speak location of the language region in brain 2. Correlational Studies -observational in nature, but involves more formal measurement -environmental event, individual`s physical & social characteristic & behaviour -examine relations of these measurements 3. Experiment -identify causal relations among events Progressive Sequence in Research -naturalistic observation provide context of the problem -identify phenomenon & indicate something about magnitude -correlational evidence relation between observations -systematic investigation produce concrete evidence about causal role Rules of Scientific Method in Cause-And-Effect Relations 1. Identify problem & formulate hypothetical cause-and-effect relation among variable -identify variables, describe relation among them 2. Design the experiment -manipulation of independent variable, observation of dependent variables -each variable must be operationally defined -independent variable must be controlled 3. Perform the experiment -organize material, train people, recruit volunteer, randomly assign volunteer 4. Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study -involves math procedures to determine observed effect is statistically significant 5. Communicate the results -description of procedure, results, discussion of their significance www.notesolution.com
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