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PSYA01 Ch 2

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Steve Joordens

Ch 2 The WaysMeans of Psych 2956Scientific method a set of rules that governs the collectionanalysis of data gained by experiments Types of Scientific Research 1 Naturalistic observation the observation of the behvr of ppl or animals in their natural envt ie Darwin Maria Montessori Clinical observation the observation of the behvr of ppl undergoing diagnosistreatment 2 Correlation studies involves the measurementexamination of variables envt events individuals physsocial characteristicsbehvr that are related to certain behvrs of ppl or animals to explain the observed behvrs3 Experiments a study where the researcher changes the value of an independent variableobserves if this manipulation affects the value of a dependant variable only experiments can identify causeandeffect relations among variables Rules of the Scientific Method 1 Identify the problemcreate hypothetical causeeffect relations among variablesIdentifying variables include particular behvrsenvt and psychological events2Design the experiment The independent variables are manipulatedthe dependent variables are observed each variable must be operationally defined 3Perform the experimentThe experiment conductors are trainedthe materialvolunteers are gathered the step when observations are recorded 4 Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data f the studythe step involves math to see if the observed effect was statistically significant 5 Communicate the resultsIdentifying the Problem Getting an Idea for ResearchHypothesis a tentative statement designed to be tested by an experiment to determine a causeeffect relsh btw 2 or more events naturalistic observations can lead to thisin Greek it conveys suggestionTheory a set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena known facts relations among variables an elaborate form of an hypothesis a good theory can generate testable hypothesis Naturalists carefully observe their specimen in their natural envt w as little disturbance as possible in the backgroundClinical psychologists dont remain in the background helps change the patients behvrsolve their problemsCase study a detailed description of an individuals behvr during the course of clinical treatmentdiagnosis Survey study a study of ppls responses to standardized questions
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