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Canada (161,798)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12

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John Bassili

Chapter 12 Developmental psychologists study both the similarities and the differences among people as they develop and change Cross-Sectional Study: A study of development in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same time Longitudinal Study: A study of development in which observations of the same individuals are compared at different times of their lives The union of the ovum(egg) and sperm, conception, is the starting point for prenatal development Prenatal Period: The nine months between conception and birth. This period is divided into three developmental stages; the zygotic, the embryonic, and the fetal Zygote Stage: The first stage of prenatal development, during which the zygote divides many times and the internal organs begin to form BY the end of the first week, the zygote consists of about a hundred cells and they are arranged in two layers, one for the skin, hair, nervous system, and sensory organs and other for the digestive and respiratory systems and glands. Near the end, a third layer of cells appears that develop into muscles and the circulatory and excretory systems. The zygote is transformed into an embryo Embryonic Stage: The second stage of prenatal development, beginning at about two weeks and ending about eight weeks after conception, during which the heart begins to beat, the brain starts to function, and most of the major body structures begin to form. By the end of this stage, the major features that define the human body-arms, hands, fingers, legs, toes, shoulders, head and eyes are discernible. Teratogens: Substances, agents, and events that can cause birth defects Androgens: The primary class of sex hormones in males. The most important androgen is testosterone Androgens bring about the development of the male internal sex organs Fetal Stage: The third and final stage of prenatal development, which lasts for about seven months, beginning with the appearance of bone tissue and ending with birth Fetal movements also become strong enough to be felt by the mother, and the heartbeat is oud enough to be heard through a stethoscope. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Even if children with FAS are reared in healthy environments with regular, nutritious meals, their physical and intellectual development still falls short of that of normal children www.notesolution.com
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