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Chapter 14

[*] PSYA02 - Chapter 14 {Complete, stand-alone from Text} - Joordens

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PersonalityPersonality Defined PERSONALITYparticular trend of behavrthinking that is common across timesituationsdistinguishes 1 person from another personalitystudying psygistsgoal is to find out causes of individual distinctions in behav Studying Personality 2 forms of effort req to study personality 1 Identifying personality charateristics 2 Finding out variables that prodcontrol these personality characteristics Nominal Fallacy must be avoided when studying any scienceNOMINAL FALLCYfalse belief that events causes are explaining merely by namingidentifying them explaining is not the same thing as identifying and namingNominal FallacyAnger Wow he is really angrywhat you say after you saw an enraged person detach a mailbox from its position on the sidewalk and through it across the street this only described the behaviouridentified it but didnt explain why it occurred TRAIT THEORIES OF PERSONALITY Initial Categorization of Personalitybased on conceptof personality traitstraitset of personal characteristics that determines diff ways that one actsreacts in various situations no agreement on the number of traits and which ones PERSONALITY TYPES AND TRAITSHumoural Theory of Personalityproposed by Hippocrates 400 BCE revised by successor Galen 200 CE body made up of 4 humoursfluidsppl classified based on which fluid was more dom in them obviously based on their social interactions bc they werent able to look inside some1 while their alive during these times Fluid in excess PhrasePersonalityyellow bilechloreic personbadtempered irritable black bilemelancholic person gloomy pessimistphlegmphlegmatic person sluggish calm UNexcitable blood sanguine person cheerful passionateHumoural Theory Still AliveNo but its idea of ppl having diff personality types lasted PERSONALITY TYPEdiff categories in which personality characteristics can fall under based on factors ex dvpmtl experiences phys characteristicstype is a category that identifies personality characteristics that all go together What comes after IdentifyingDefining Personality typemust dictate whether personality type existswhether knowing this personality type about individual can lead to valid predictions about their behav in various situationsIdea behind Personality TRAITS PERSONALITY TRAITpresisting personal characteristic that displays itself in particular trend of behav in various situationsparticular characteristic instead of ppl falling under particular category ppl have diffs in personality from one another bc they vary from each other to diff extents on a given category ideameasure degree of which individual exhibits specific personality traitaway from notion that they assoc COMPLETELY w one category but rather may showof that categoryof other category etc ex height illustrates diff bween Personality TRAITS vs TYPES using this as analogy ppl are not either tall or short An personality type but rather differ to extent to which they exhibit tallness or shortnessAn personality traitPersonality Traitsnot merely behavioural trends but factors that area the cause of these trendswhat is causing these behaviours to occurb so responsibe for expressing them it is because this person shows this personality type strongly so this is why he expresses these types of behavspersonality trait stays in brain once its dvpedstill able to changed via learning if this does occur then there must be some neurological happening in the brain that are cause of it personality traits carried around w us in brain IDENTIFICATION OF PERSONALITY TRAITS multiple trait categorization models exist ALLPORTS SEARCH FOR TRAITSone of 1st psygist to do careful search for basic pt of personality traitsstarted w identifying all words describing ath to do w personality from an ENG unabridged dictionary18000 entries found worked w only stable personality states NOT temp ones ex would eliminate flustered admirable from his listonly occur temporarily then they go awayex youwouldnt remain flustered for so long Allports Beliefstrait labels in Eng show imptance of traits wrt how ppl think about others themselves if that word was mentioned a lot then ppl think about others with the word a lot welldvped trait thry has value in comprehending human fcningtraits are neuropsyl propsif person possesses particular trait then will react similaritly in all situations bc they experiene special sense of commonality across situations that directs their feelings thoughts behavsthey see it necessary to react similarily in EVERY situation thinks that traits remain consistent over time and remain relatively similar going from one context to another when a trait can be described then and only then can it be explained Allportargued that all traits dont have equal influence on posessorCARDINAL TRAITSmost powerful trait for posessorstrong unifying influence on persons behavrarehaving this trait makes you stand out from the rest of the ppl person who has this trait is vstrongly assoc w it ex Adolf Hitlerrelentless with his quest to achieve power ex Nelson Mendelacommited to justice
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