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Canada (161,461)
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PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)

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John Bassili

CHAPTER 12 LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Cross-Sectional Study a study of development in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same time Longitudinal Study a study of development in which observations of the same individuals are compared at different times of their lives PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Prenatal Period the nine months between conception and birth. This period is divided into three developmental stages: the zygotic, the embryonic, and the fetal - Length of a normal pregnancy is 266 days or 38 weeks Theres the genetic contribution from egg and sperm that determines the genotype of the new individual X chromosome inactivation is one factor that directs the mechanisms of replication cells during the prenatal period so that cells that are genetically identical will develop along different paths One of the 2 X chromosomes that women bear is silenced early in development, such that most of its genes dont synthesize the proteins they normally would X chromosome inactivation is one example of an epigenetic modification, a modification of cell inheritance that is not due to alterations of the DNA sequence itself Stages of Prenatal Development Union of ovum (egg) and sperm, conception, is starting point for prenatal development Zygote Stage the first stage of prenatal development, during which the zygote divides many times and the internal organs begin to form; lasts about 2 weeks Embryonic Stage the second stage of prenatal development, beginning at about 2 weeks and ending about 8 weeks after conception, during which the heart begins to beat, the brain starts to function, and most of the major body structures begin to form; development occurs at rapid pace - Behaviourally, the embryo can react reflexively to stimulation and is most susceptible to external chimerical influences (e.g. alcohol, drugs, toxins) Teratogens substances, agents, and events that can cause birth defects Twenty-third chromosome pair determines the sex of the embryo Embryo develops a pair of gonads that will become either ovaries or testes Androgens the primary class of sex hormones in males. The most important androgen is testosterone Development of female sex organs occurs naturally; not stimulated by hormone Fetal Stage the third and final stage of prenatal development, which lasts for about seven months, beginning with the appearance of bone tissue and ending with birth www.notesolution.comPHYSICAL AND PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Motor Development Maturation any relatively stable change in thought, behaviour, or physical growth that is due to the aging process and not to experience At birth, infants most important movements are reflexes automatic response to stimuli Development of motor skills requires 2 ingredients: maturation of childs nervous system and practice Perceptual Development Fetal experience with sensory stimuli can prepare the way for the newborns experience At the time of birth, a childs senses are already functioning; auditory system, sense of touch, sense of balance, sense of taste Form Perception Researchers study the visual perceptual abilities of infants by observing their eye movements with an eye-tracking device while showing them visual stimuli Salapatek reported that a 1 month-old infant tends not to look at the inside of a figure, instead, gaze is trapped by the edges; by age of 2 months, baby scans across the border to investigate the interior of a figure Distance Perception Retinal disparity is a type of cue in the environment that contributes to depth perception - Under normal circumstances points on objects that are different distances from the viewer fall on slightly different points of the two retinas - Perception of depth occurs when the two images are fused through visual process; this form of depth perception, stereopsis (solid vision), will not develop unless animals have experience viewing objects with both eyes during a period early in life Critical and Sensitive Periods in Perceptual Development Critical Period a specific time in development during which certain experiences must occur for normal development to occur Sensitive Period a period of time during which certain experiences have more of an effect on development than they would have if they occurred at another time Interim Summary Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood www.notesolution.com
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