Textbook Notes (368,566)
Canada (161,966)
Psychology (9,696)
PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17

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Oren Amitay

Chapter 17 Noe t sThe Nature And Causes O fPsychological Disordes r N Etiologythe causes or origins of a disorder N Psychological diorders are charactrized by abnormal behaviour, toughts, and feelins N The term abnor mal literally refersto any departurefrom the norm o Thus, a short or tallperson is abr al, and so iomeone who is esp ecially intelligent o But the term abnormal has taken on apejorative connotation: we useti to refer to characteristics we dilie or fear o The distinction tween normal and abn ormal can bevery subjective;tis stressed that the most important feature of a pchological diorder is not wether a persons behaviour is abnor al, but wheter it is maladaptev Psychological diorders cause distressor discomfort nd interfere witheoples ability to lead satfing, producte lives o But is a person is disilked, should we say thee a psychological dorder? No o Abnormal is distrssinganddysfunctional; anythnig that may cause harm to you or anyone else,or prevents gowth But virtually evything we docancausesome one else harm N This is intentional,as everyone isabnormal inme way or another;it is over-inclusive But this over-incluieness is a strgth because it educes stigma Also, if you knowyoure abnormal,then why dontyou try to fix t? And how do you defin e hurtharm? This term is o vague o For most disorders,you need to meet 1 of 2 criteria:either causou significant distress, or impairsyour functioning N Although the diagnosis of psychological orders shouldbe as objective as ossible, it may never be complee tly free from social andpolitical judgements N There is not a singlecause of psychl gical disord; generally theyare caused y the interaction of heredtiary, cognitive, and environtal factors o In some cases, theenetic component is strong andthe person is liely to devl p a psychological dorder evenin a very supportvie environment But in other cases,the cognitive andenvironmental omponents are sto rng N Thepsychodynamic perspectiveisbased on Freudsearly work, wher e psychologci al disorders originate in intrsychic conflict produced by e three componentsof the mind; id, ego, and superego o These conflictsmay centre on attmpts to control potntially harmful xpressions of sexual or aggresie impulses,or may also arisefrom attempts to cope with external dangers and traumatic experiences o For some, the conflictecomessose vere that the minds defence mechanisms cannot produce a resolutionthat is adequate formental health; theresult is that thedefence mechanisms distotrreality or the iividual beginst function in sme areas of life in a manner charactersitic of an earlieevelopmental stage The consequent psych ological disordersmay involve, mong other symp toms, extreme anxiety,obsessive though ts, compulsive beaviour, depression, distorted perceptions,and paralysisor blindness forhere there is no phsical cause www.notesolution.comN Themedical perspectivesorigins lie in thework of Hippocrates; he formuted the idea that excesses from theofur humours (black biel, yellow l , blood and phlem) led to emotoi nal problems o They extended theideas and deveo l ped the conceptof mental illness, andssuch, asylums were establsihed,and the conditionswere oftenmistreated o Later however condtiions improved, and thosewho were specifc ially trained inmedical treatment were hired o Today however, theyare treatedwith drugs to h elp decrease and in omecases, eliminate the sympotms; usually only tose with severe problems are intitutionalized N Thecognitive-behaviouralperspectiveholds thatpsychological disorders arelearned maladaptive beha viour patterns thatcan best be uderstood by focusigon environmental factors and a personsperception of ose factors o In this view, psycological disorders are not thingsthat arise spontaneousyl withina person, but insteadcaused by a persons interactionwith the envonment E.g. people whoreon drugs may bereinforced by therelief from tension o It is not merelythe environment thatmatters what also counts is a perons ongoing subjective interpetation of the vents taking l ce in his or hervironment, and therefore encourag e their clientt replace maladapitve thoughts and behaviours with positive ones N Thehumanisticperspectiveargues that properand naturalpersonality dev elopment occurs when people experien ce unconditional ositive regard, and as such, psychlgical disorders arise when people perceivethat they must earnthe positiveregard of others o Thus they beco me overly sensitie to the demands and criticisms of othersand com to define their peronal value pri arily in terms ofothers reai ns to them, cking confidence in theirabilities and feelingas though they have no stable,trnal valueas people This result may caue them to feel thatthey have no ontrol over the outomes of important evenst in their lives, otfen accompaniedby depression o The goal is to persade people that thy do have intri sic value ant help them achieve their own, unique positive potential asman beings N Thesociocultural perspectivefinds that the cultus in which people live play i nificant role in their developent of psychological isorders o Proper treatmentrequires an und erstanding of culturalissues Cultural variabs influence the natur andextent to which people interpret their own behavioursas normalor abnormal; what isconsidered as normal in one culture may be abnormal in another o Moreover, psych ological disorders exist thatpear tooccur only in certai cultures, called culture-oundsyndromes N Thebiopsychosocial perspectiveasks certain questions: are isorders causedby conflict within the individual? Are ey caused by genetic factors orby abnormalitiesof the brainand nervous system, or both? Arethey caused byel arning, by faut subjective it rpretationsof environmental events, or by the way our particlr culture says we should thinkd behave? o No single perspectvie is completely adequate; difrnt approache s can be combni ed to form larger, morecomprehensive persp ectives o Diathesis-stress modelacausalacc ount of psychological disorders basedon the idea that psychological diorders develop whena person possessesapredispo sition for a disorder and facesstressors that exeed his or her abiilties to cope wiem th www.notesolution.com
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