Textbook Notes (363,507)
Canada (158,391)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA02H3 (932)
Chapter 18

Chapter 18

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

Chapter 18 Note sTheT reatment O fPsychological Disod rers N Early treatment ofpsychological orders involved tr phining o Trephininga surgical procedure in which a ole is made in the skullof a living person o This opening wasmade to permitevil spirits to ve the victim head, and was performed with asharp-edged stone in prehitoric times o Exorcisms were attemptedtoo, with other rtiuals including beating,ving, near- drowning, and drinkig foul-tastingoncoctions o As society progessed, their tret ent becamemore humane, whlie other times at asylums, patients ere treated horribl, sometimes ept in chains and walwingin their own excrement N Philippe Pinel wasa French physician o in 1793 conducted an experiment interms of treating patients nicer; thxperiment wasasuccess o Pinelssuccessencouraged similarreforms elsewheer, such as Dorotea Dix in the US, where she was responsible for laygthe groundwork for the first psychiatrci hospitalin Nova Scotia N The modern approachto therapycan be traced to Franz Anton Mesmer, an Au strian physician who devised a teory of magneticfluxes, wherehe attempted ot effect cures by manipulting iron rods and bottlesof chemicls o In reality, he hyotized his patientsand thereby l viating someof their symptoms, and as a result, hyosis was first own as mesm erism N Jean Martin Charcot began to studyypnosis when on e of his students uced her to disply the symptoms of a conversion reaction (thencalled hysteria) o Examining her, hethen determined she was hysteri al; the studentwoke up the wman, and the symptomsvanished o Before Freud began prviate practice,he studied wtih Charcot o Freud then createdthe practice of ychoanalysis N Regardless of theretical orienti n, all therapistve incommon a strong c ommitment to helping people sole their problems o Eclectic approacha form of therapy in which thetherapist uses whaver method he or she feels willork best for a partilr client atarticular time This often means cmbiningaspects of several difrent treatment approaches according to a partilar clients problem and persl circumstance N Every therapy exept for 1 has the same key prinle: making aware that whichyou are not aware of o The only exception isbehaviour theray,where behaviourism is simpyl just lookingat behaviour; the outcome N All major therapies hasthis as theoal: exposingyou to that whichou are afraidof o With behaviour therapy being effective forobias N Insight therapy asme that people areessentially nomal but learnmaladaptive thought patterns and emotoins, whichare revealed inmaladaptive beaviours o i.e. insight therapygives you insight on things ont know about yourself N Psychoanalysisa form oftherapy aimed at porviding the ci nt with insightt his or her unconscious motivatoin and impulses,devisedbySigmund Freud o In the early stagesof therapy, thenature of thi nts problems r difficult ti entify because the analyst andthe client are uware of the uderlying, unconscius conflicts www.notesolution.com o The repression of theseconflicts is seldom mplete though, andthey frequently intrude into consciousness in subtle wys o The purpose of therap y is to createa setting inich clues about the origins ofconflicts are most likelyto be revealed by te client o One of the main g oals of the psyoanalyst is to interet the clues aboutthe origins of intrapsychic conflictgiven by the client Although peoplemay provide their own interpre tations, Freud argued tht people are biasedobservers of their own problems and thus interpretations are inaccurate o While the psych oanalysts primaryrole is interpretion, the clientmust provide the psychoanalyst withthings to interpret; this is not asy task to acomplish becau se the client unconscoiusly invokesone or more defence mechanisms , which prevent anxiety-provokingmemories and id eas from reachingconsciousa wareness o Freud felt that theeil of amnesia lifts the momentthat insight ichieved; theclient begins to understandthe true natureof his or her problems N Free associationapsychoanalytic procedure inwhich the cle i nt is encouragedto speak frel, without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially acceptable thoughtsor ideas o Freud achieved his goal in two ways: First the client wasencouraged to reort any thoughts or images that came to mind Second Freud attempe td to minimize ay authoritati e influence over the clients disclosureby eliminating eye contact N The way you talk fce-to-face withother people,such as friends, isthe way you talk whenyou have eye conta ct, and as suchby avoiding this, you avoid talking ie normal N When youre lying down, you reall listen to whatyou say, and you reflect upon it N A desk is a barrier o In normal conversatoin, silence is award o You dont want to mak e eye contact; the true meanig in therapy happens insilence o Freud believed thatdreams were a crucial component of psychoanalysis Dream interpreta tion is a hl ark of psychoanalysisdevised by Feud But even dream cone tnt is subject to some cenoring, so the analt must distinguish between the dreamsmanifest and latentcontents o Insight is not achved quickly, nor doclients always i d it easy to dl se private aspects of their peronal lives o In fact, there is a paox involved in achievinginsight, for the often pail or threatening knowe ldge resulting from insight isrcisely what ledto its repression in the first place o Resistancea development during therapy inwhich the client b ecomes defensive, unconsciously attempting to haltfurther insight by censoring his or hertrue feelings o Transferencethe processby which a clien t begins to projt powerful attituesand emotions onto a th erapist This may happen a s the client ries aspects of theirchildhood; theclient may come to love or hate the therapist wtih the same it nsity of the powerful emotions experienc ed in childhood toward parents r siblings www.notesolution.com
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