Textbook Notes (363,521)
Canada (158,393)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA02H3 (932)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 17

ch.17 textbook notes detailed

19 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 17The Nature and Causes of Mental DisordersClassification and diagnosis of Mental DisordersWhat is AbnormalAbnormalany departure from the norm its become a pejorative connotation and we use the term to describe characteristics we dislike or fearDistinction between normal and abnormal behaviour is subjectiveThe most important feature of a mental disorder isnt whether persons behaviour is abnormal different from most other people but whether its maladaptiveMaking it impossible to people to hold jobs raise families or relate to others sociallyUnderstanding cultural difference in beliefs is important the fact that diagnoses are affected by social or cultural contexts doesnt mean that theyre invalidPerspectives on the Causes of Mental DisordersInteraction of hereditary cognitive and environmental factorsSome mental disordersespecially the less severe ones appear to be caused by environmental factors or by peoples perception of these factor stress A child who is constantly criticized by a parent may learn to be passive and nonresponding this strategy may be adaptive in interactions with the parent but would be maladaptive in other social situationsMany of the more severe mental disorders appear to be caused by hereditaryMental disorders are characterized by abnormal behavior thoughts and feelingsThe difference between normal and abnormal is whether the difference is maladaptiveUnderstanding the cognitive factors involved in mental disorders requires identification of the origins of distorted perceptions and maladaptive thought patternsThe Psychodynamic PerspectiveFreuds early workMental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the 3 components of the mind idego and superegoConflict becomes so severe that the minds defence mechanisms cant produce a resolution adequate for mental health so defence mechanisms distort reality or individual functions in some areas of life in a manner characteristic of an earlier developmental stageSymptoms include extreme anxiety obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour depression distorted perceptions and patters of thinking and paralysis or blindness for which there is no physical causeThe Medical PerspectiveThe origins of the medical perspective lie in the work of Hippocrates Formulated the idea that excesses of the 4 humours led to emotional problemsExtension of his ideas led to concept of mental illnessillness of the mindEarly asylums were poorly run problems were poorly understood and often mistreatedMedical model is based on the ideas that mental disorders are caused by specificabnormalities of the brain and nervous system and they should be treated in the sameway as physical illnessesBiological factors are known to at least contribute to the development of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and drugs are usually used for treatmentNot all mental disorders can be traced directly to physical causes so other perspectives that focus on cognitive and environmental factors emergedThe CognitiveBehavioural PerspectiveMental disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can be best understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factorsDoesnt rise spontaneously in a personCaused by the persons interaction with their environment and their ongoing subjective interpretation of the events in the environmentEncouraging clients to replacesubstitute maladaptive thoughts and behaviours with more adaptive onesThe Humanistic PerspectiveProponents of humanistic perspective believe that proper and natural personality development occurs when people experience unconditional positive regard and mental disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others thus they become overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others and define their personal value in terms of others reaction to themThey lack confidence in their abilities and feel as though they have no stable internal value as persons symptoms accompany depression Purpose of humanistic therapy is to persuade people that they do have intrinsic value and help them achieve their own unique positive potential as human beingsThe Sociocultural PerspectiveThe cultures in which people live in play a significant role in the development of mental disordersProper treatment involves an understanding of cultural issuesCultural influences influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their own behaviour as normal or abnormalCulture bound syndromes some mental disorders that seem to occur only in certain culturesThe DiathesisStress Model of Mental DisordersDiathesisstress Model the combination of a persons genetics and early learning experiences yields a tendency a diathesis for a particular mental disorderHowever the mental disorder will develop only if that person is confronted with stressors that exceed their coping capabilitiesThe DSMIV Classification SchemeDiagnostic and Statistical Manual IV DSMIV a widely used manual for classifying mental disorders devised to provide a reliable universal set of diagnostic categories having criteria specified as explicitly as possibleMEMORIZE TABLE 171 ON PAGE 566 DSMIV provides descriptions of an individuals psychological condition using five criteria called axes individuals are assessed on each of the axes1Axis 1contains information on major psychological disorders that require clinical attention including disorders that may develop during childhood
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.