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PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 17

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Mental Disorders Cognitive CausesoCognitive approach focuses on expectancypeople who suffer from panic disorders are extremely sensitive to any element of risk or danger in their environments expect to be threatened by environmental stressors and downplay or underestimate ability to cope with them oDevelop sense of dream from expectancy of having to face stressors that they fear will overwhelm their coping abilitiesoAnticipating that something bad will happen can precipitate panic attackPhobic Disorders DescriptionPhobic disorder persistent irrational fears of specific objects or situations that makes someones life difficultDSMIV recognizes 3oAgoraphobia social phobia and specific phobiaAgoraphobiacharacterized by fear of and avoidance of being alone in public places most serious of disorders often accompanied by panic attacksoMore prevalent in womenoLikely to begin in midlate 20sSocial phobiacharacterized by an excessive and irrational fear of situations in which person is observed by others accompanied by anxiety selfperpetuatingeven after successful positive interactions with others people with social phobia feel less positive and more negative affect than people without phobiaoLikely to begin in teen yearsSpecific phobiaexcessive or irrational fear of specific things often caused by traumatic event 15 women and 7 men and about 13 of people exhibit symptoms of disorder females more likely to develop agoraphobia but male and females equally likely to develop phobiaIf begins in childhood or adolescencemore likely to disappear than if begins after adolescence rarely appears after 30 years oldPhobic Disorders Possible CausesPsychoanalytical theory attributes phobias to distress caused by intolerable unconscious impulses or to displacement of objective sources of fear to symbolic sources ie Fear of abusive parent to snakeClinical psychologists and behavioural psychologists believe they are learned through classical conditioningdirect or vicarious Environmental causeslearningoMany people with traumatic events do not develop phobias and many with phobias do not remember traumatic eventsoSome objects more likely to be feared than others Genetic causesoOhmansupport theory that phobias developed from ancestors Electric shock paired with fearrelevant picture induced fear but not when paired with irrelevant picture even though picture represented in way that participants could not identify contentshowed special proclivity for conditioned fear to fearrelevant stimuli without awarenessoStudy showed increase in skin conductance when shown pictures of things they already had phobias to even when presented outside conscious awarenessObsessiveCompulsive Disorder DescriptionObsessivecompulsive disorderrecurrent unwanted thoughts or ideas compelling urges to engage in repetitive rituallike behaviourCompulsionsan irresistible impulse to repeat some action over and over even though it serves no useful purposeObsessionsan involuntary recurring thought idea or imageEg Impaired control of mental acitivites urges involving loss of motor control and feeling contaminated Compulsive behaviour is defence against anxiety but begins to demand increasing amount of time Obsessions seen in other mental disorders like schizophrenia but unlike OCD cannot recognize they are senseless and need to go awayFemales more likely than males to have this disorder commonly begins in young adulthood unlikely to marry2 kinds of obsessions obsessive doubt or uncertainty and obsessive fear of doing something prohibitedoSome obsessed with fear of committing suicide but only 1 do itFall into 4 categories counting checking cleaning and avoidanceObsessive Compulsive Disorder Possible CausesCan be understood in terms of defence mechanisms Cognitive investigators suggested that obsessions serve as devices to occupy mind and displace painful thoughtsalso seen in normal behaviour Cognitive CausesoOCDs believe that they should be competent at all times avoid any kinds of criticism at all costs and worry about being punished by others for behaviour that is less than perfectoMay engage in checking behaviour to reduce anxiety caused by fear of being perceived by others as incompetent or to avoid criticism that they have done something less than perfectly oIf painful anxiety producing thoughts become frequent and if turning toalternative pattern of those reduces anxietypositive reinforcement increases behaviouroIf habit becomes firmly established then obsessive thoughts may persist even after reason for turning to them no longer exists Genetic Causes
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