Textbook Notes (367,936)
Canada (161,516)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Semester
Winter

Description
CH 14: Personality PSYA02 1 Trait Theories of Personality Personality is a particular pattern of behavior and thinking and determines how we act or react in a variety of situations. Humoural Theory (by Galen): earliest theory to explain individual differences in personality. (Body contains 4 humours) o Choleric ppl excess yellow bad temperedirritable. o Melancholic ppl excess black gloomypessimistic. o Phlegmatic ppl excess phlegm- sluggishcalmunexcitable. o Sanguine ppl excess blood passionatecheerful Personality types different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors (developmental exp for eg) o This is an obviously rejected theory, today we conceive of individual differences personality as being in degree, not kind. Personality trait enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behavior in different situations. o Ppl vary in the extent to which they are one or the other (analogous to a personality trait) o Traits have both biological and learning outside of body. Dynamic organization integrated and unified whole, we have a sense of having a unified experience. organization occurs within the individual. Exists in terms of psychophysical systems (brain) These systems determine(implying cause and effect) Personality has causal impact on our behaviour knowing somebodys personality has an EXPLANATORY power to it. Personality helps us makes adaptations www.notesolution.comCH 14: Personality PSYA02 2 to world around us. Allport (Important in Personality Traits) o Believed that people react the same in all situations Cardinal Traits rare, but strong unifying influence on persons behavior. (eg. Hitler) Central Traits less singular than cardinal (eg. Honest, warm) used to distinguish from others. Secondary Traits minor influence in behavior (eg. freq to change jobs) He believes we only know how to explain a persons personality once we can describe it! Cattell (16 Personality factors) o Used Allports information to bring Allports 18 000 trait words into 171 adjectives (using factor analysis) o He referred his 16 PF as source traits, to which personality was built. Eysenck (3 Factors) of bipolar dimensions. (ENP) o Extroversion outgoing nature (opp to introversion) requires more external stimulation than introvert to maintain optimum arousal. Introversion shy, reserved, careful (opp to extroversion) requires little to maintain his lower arousal lvl. o Neuroticism always tense, worrying, moody and unstable (opp to emotional stability) o Psychoticism aggressive, anti social, egocentric (opp of self control) www.notesolution.com
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