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Psychology (9,699)
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Anna Nagy (283)
Chapter 1

PSYBO1 - Chapter 1 Notes.docx

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Anna Nagy

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Chapter #1 Notes: Scientific Understand of Behaviour: Uses of Research Methods:  Clark and Clark (1947): when black and white children asked to play with dolls they preferred to play with light-skinned dolls  Demonstrating children viewed light skin as superior to dark skin  Research used by US supreme that segregating students by race should be banned Methods of Acquiring Knowledge: Intuition:  You accept unquestioningly what your personal judgement or a single story about one person’s experience tells you about the world  Problem: many cognitive and motivational biases affect our perceptions and so we are likely to draw erroneous conclusions about cause and effect  Illusory correlation – occurs when we focus on two events that stand out and occur together  A scientific approach requires more evidence before drawing conclusions Authority:  Aristotle – concerned with factors associated with persuasion and change o “Persuasion is achieved by the speaker’s personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible. We believed good men more fully and readily than others” o We are more likely to be persuaded by a speaker who is trustworthy, prestigious and respectable  We believe authority figures too easily, advertisers use this to their advantage  Scientific approach rejects the notion that one can accept on faith the statements of any authority Skepticism, Science and the Empirical Approach:  Scientific skepticism – ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigations  Empiricism – fundamental characteristic of the scientific method, knowledge is based on structured, systematic observations  Hypothesis – an idea that might be true  4 key characteristics guide the process of scientific inquiry o Make systematic observations, others can replicate the methods (to check for falsifiable, confounding variables) o Search for observations that will help them make accurate discoveries about the world o Science flourishes when there is an open exchange and competition of ideas  Researchers are interested in falsifiable ideas – can be supported/refuted using empirical data; idea of repression is unfalsifiable  Only falsifiable ideas can be tackled by science o Peer review Integrating Scientific Skepticism, Intuition and Authority:  Advantage of scientific approach = provides an objective set of rules for gathering, evaluating and reporting information  Intuition and authority used to think of ideas to test  Pseudoscience – uses scientific terms to substantiate claims without using scientific data o Hypotheses generated are not falsifiable o If scientific test are reported, methodology is not scientific and accuracy of data is questionable o Supportive evidence tends to be anecdotal or relies heavily on authorities who are “so- called” experts in the area of interest. Genuine, peer-reviewed scientific references are not cited o Claims ignore conflicting evidence o Claims are stated in scientific-sounding terminology and ideas o Claims tend to be vague, rationalize strongly held beliefs, and appeal to preconceived ideas o Claims are never revised to account for new data G
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