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Psychology (9,695)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Anna Nagy (283)
Chapter 5

PSYB01 - Chapter #5 Notes.docx

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Anna Nagy

Chapter #5 Notes: Measurement Concepts:  Every variable studied must be operationally defined Self-Report Test and Measures:  Self-report measures also called scales  Self-report measures often used to study psychological attributes such as intelligence, self- esteem, extraversion and depression  Self-report NEO Personality Inventory – measure 5 dimensions of personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness  MMPI-II used for clinical diagnoses and hiring decisions Reliability of Measures:  Reliability – first step to a quality operational definition – consistency or stability of a measure of behaviour o True Score – the person’s real score on the variable o Measurement error – measure of intelligence is unreliable and cannot provide an accurate measurement  The reliability of measure reduces uncertainty or error associated with that measure  Reliability can be increased by taking multiple observations of the same variable  Reliability is increased when the number of items is increased  Most common correlation coefficient is the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient – the closer the relationship is to +1.00 or -1.00 the stronger the relationship o Correlation of 0.00 = no correlation at all  To assess reliability of a measure need at least two scores on the measure from many individuals; if similar that reliable (two scores should show a high positive correlation) Test-Retest Reliability:  Assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time  Probably be at least 0.8 to be considered reliable  Alternate forms reliability – administering 2 different forms of the same test to the same individuals at two points in time Internal Consistency Reliability:  Assesses how well a certain set of items relate to each other  Responses are gathered at only one point in time  Cronbach’s alpha – researcher calculates how well each item relates to every other item, which produces a large # of interitem correlations o Provide information about each ind item o Info also useful when it is necessary to remove some items to construct a brief version of a measure Interrater Reliability:  2 raters to observe the same behaviour  Interrater reliability – extent to which raters agree in their observations o Commonly used indicator of interrater reliability = Cohen’s kappa Reliability and Accuracy of Measures:  Reliability tells us the amount of error in the measurement but does not tell us about whether our measure accurately reflects the variable of interest Validity of Measures:  Second requirement of a quality operational definition is validity  Construct validity – adequacy of the operational definition of variables o The degree to which the operational definition of a variable actually reflects the true theoretical meaning of the variable o Does the construct measure what it is intended to measure? Indicators of Construct Validity: Face Validity:  Simplest way to argue a measure is valid is to say it appears to accurately assess the intended variable  Face validity – evidence for validity is that the measure appears on the face of it to measure what it is supposed to measure o Not very sophisticated o Involves only a judgement of whether, given the theoretical definition of the variable the content of the measure appears to actually measure the variable o Not sufficient to conclude that a measure has construct validity! o Appearance is not a good indicator of accuracy Content Validity:  Based on comparing the content of the measure with the theoretical definition of the construct  Measure reflects if what we want to measure is being measured (like face validity) Predictive Validity:  Research that uses measure to predict some future behaviour  Criterion is some future behav
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