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PSYB01H3 (581)
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Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Nussbaum D
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 11 Qualitative research: learn about human behaviour by listening to the humans or observing natural behaviour Features of qualitative research Collection of qualitative data  As “experienced by subject” Exploratory research questions Commitment to inductive reasoning Focus on previously unstudied processes and unanticipated phenomena Focus on human subjectivity  Meanings that participants attach to events Reflexive research design  Design develops as the research progresses Sensitivity to the researcher’s subjectivity Qualitative Methods  Qualitative interviewing o Open-ended, relatively unstructured questioning  Participant observation o Sustained relationship with participant during normal, daily activities  Focus groups o Unstructured group interviews Qualitative Interviewing Used to find out about people’s experiences, thoughts, and feelings – usually with the goal of understanding how they make sense of their experiences. Qualitative interviewers may allow the specific content and order of questions to vary from one interview to another. Relies on open-ended questions Follows a preplanned outline of topics instead of fixed questions and response options Researcher engaged more actively in the interview Often longer than structured interviews A “conversation with a purpose” Interviewee Selection Random selection rarely used Interviewees should be:  Knowledgeable about the subject  Open to talking  Representative of the range of perspectives Selection should continue until saturation point: New interviews seem to yield little additional information As new issues are uncovered, additional interviewees may be selected to represent different opinions about the issues. Asking Questions and Answers Questions planned around an outline Questions should be short and clear Follow-up questions are tailored to participant answers Interviewer should try to develop a rapport with the interviewee  Show interest in the interviewee  Explain clearly what is the purpose of the interview  Interviewer should maintain appropriate distance from subject  Maintain eye contact  Maintain appropriate pace  Allow interview to unwind after emotional interview Participant Observation Social processes are studied as they happen and are left relatively undisturbed Attempts to avoid the artificiality of other designs Considers the context of the behavior Uses participant observers:  Balance between observing and participating  Balance may change over course of study Possible reactive effects: people will react to someone observing them and taking notes Can create boundary issues: participants in the sitting can simply forget about the researcher’s role and the researcher can start to function simply as a participant Observer can note effect on others in the setting and the effect of others on observations Participant observer must dress and act appropriately given the environment  May require introductions Observer m
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