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PSYB01H3 (581)
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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Ethics in Behavioural Research

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Nussbaum D
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 3Ethics in Behavioural ResearchStory of Milgrams experimentslightly simplified version of the famous obedience experiments by Stanley Milgram in 1960 at Yale Every psychologists needs to consider how to practise the discipline ethically whether that practise involves clinical care about personal problems research to learn about human behaviour or bothwe have the Code of conduct Historical Background Formal procedures for protecting participants in research started in 1946 when the Nuremberg War Crime Trials exposed horrific medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors and others in the name of scienceIn 1970s Americans were shocked to learn that research funded by the US Public Health Service had followed 399 lowincome African American men in the Tuskegee syphilis study in the 1930s collecting data to learn natural course of the illness not told even though a cure was developed in the 1950sDevelopment of The Commissions 1979 Belmont Report established 3 basic ethical principles for the protection of human subjects Treating persons as autonomous agents and 1 Respect for persons protecting those w diminishing autonomy 2 Beneficence Minimizing possible harms and maximizing benefitsDistributing benefits and risks of research fairly 3 Justice 1991 Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Rightspolicy that is used to shape the course of social science research ever since Federal regulations require that every institution that seeks federal funding to need an institutional review board IR that To promote adequate review of ethical issues the regulations requires that IRBs include members w diverse backgrounds in the National institutes of Health monitors IRBS with the exceptionThe Office for Protection form Research Risks of research involving drugs which is responsibility of the Federal Food and Drug AdministrationEthical PrinciplesThe 2002 APA Ethics Code the most recent version contains 151 enforceable Ethical Standards as well as 5 General Principlesmeant to be general aspiration values that capture the disciplines moral vision and are consistent w Belmont Reports 3 ethical principles while the Ethical Standards are meant to apply to all APA members and to be enforced by the APA Ethics Committee 12 of state boards that license psychologists as well as numerous other bodies stipulate that psychologists must comply w APA Ethics Code Violations can be investigated and range from a reprimand to expulsion 1 Principle A Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm They seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those w whom they interact professionally and other afflicted persons and the welfare of animal subjects of research 2 Principle B Fidelity and Responsibility Psychologists establish relationship of trust w those that they work They are aware of their professional and scientific responsibilities to society and to scientific communities in which they work
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