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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - True Experiments II

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Nussbaum D

Chapter 7True Experiments II Multifactorial DesignsSubstantive Theme Social and Emotional Influences on Thinking and PerceivingThought emotions may be experimentally intractable meaning it does not lend itself to controlled lab research How can emotions be manipulated in the laboratory Experiments from Ekman and other researcher show that emotions can be covertly induced and reliably manipulated by specific facial contractionsHess and colleagues The face is not an empty canvasIdea that the emotional salience of human face reflects an intricate interaction among distinct features of the face Interaction has specific statistical meaningie drugs may interact to produce harmful or beneficial effects Using drugs alone may produce very different emotional effect Similarly two drugs may work together or synergistically to engage or magnify one or more effect Complex experimental designs are called factorial designs Factor is another name for independent variableMultifactorial for experiments that vary 2 or more independent variables and provides direct tests of main effects of each independent variable as well as interaction effects bw and among the independent variables Factorial experiments can vary independent variables bw subjects others can vary them wI subjects and still others can combine bwsubjects and wI subjects manipulation of independent variablesMultifactorial DesignsIn Merzenich group study the singlefactor experiment had 1 ind a variabletreatment with groups of participants randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment levels or conditions brain plasticity training educational DVD and no treatmentIn singlefactor exp a researcher can always add new level to existing ind Variable In multifactorial experiment an altogether new independent variable is devises and incorporated into adding a level to an existing independent variable devising a new and distinct independent variableThey provide a more realistic model of rich psychological phenomena offers economical and efficient design to evaluate and to test the separate and join influences of one or more independent variable on dependent variableNotation and TermsSimplest multifactorial design Contains 2 ind Variable each w 2 levels or valuesFactorial exps Designated or identified by numbering notation2x2 factorial design has 2 independent variables with 2 levels of values The number of numbers tell how many factors of ind variables there are and the numbers values tell how may levels of independent variablesie 3x45 factorial design indicates 2 independent variables 1 with 3 levels the other with 4 levelsTheory and ExperimentationTheory serves as starting point for all investigationTheory provides us w conceptual framework of how particular psychological phenomena might work in real life ie theory of embodied cognition can be used as conceptual model for us to understand how we experience perceive and communicate emotional information major idea is that when we perceive and think about emotion we reenact or reexperience its perceptual somatovisceral and motoric features called embodiments A Complex WithinSubjects Experiment In Psychological Science titled Perceived Faze Direction and the Processing of Facial Displays researchers Reginald B Adams and Robert Kleck theorized that eyegaze direction and facial expression represent 2 distinct and isolable features of human facial expressions represent 2 distinct and isolable features of the human face which may be important in conveying social informingcritical role in evolutionary pastApproachavoidance motivation Both can share informational value as signals of approach propelling behaviour forward setting stage for direct expression confrontation or fight they may fuel avoidance triggering inhibition culminating in flight formstimuliAdams and Kleck constructed theory which proposes that facial expressions of emotions and gaze direction operate as social signalling system that governs basic evolved behavioural tendencies for approach or avoidance our fluency in
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