Textbook Notes (363,381)
Canada (158,358)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB10H3 (611)
Chapter 4

PSYB10 - Chapter #4 Notes.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10 Chapter #4 Notes: Perceiving Persons:  Social perception – the process by which people come to understand one another Observation: The Elements of Social Perception:  The social perceiver comes to know others by relying on indirect cues – the elements of social perception Persons: Judging a Book by Its Cover:  Hard for us as adults to not judge a person by their appearance  500 BCE Pythagoras – looked into the eyes of perspective students to determine if they were gifted  Hippocrates: used facial features to make diagnoses of life and death  Franz Gall: introduced a carnival-like science called phrenology – he believed he could assess people’s character by the shape of their skulls  William Sheldon (1954): flawed study that there was a link in adult men b/w physique and personality  Physiognomy – the art of reading character from faces  People also read traits into faces based on prior information  Adults who have baby-faced features – large, round eyes, high eyebrows, round cheeks, a large forehead, smooth skin and a rounded chin tend to be warm, kind, naiive, weak, honest and submissive  Adults with mature features – small eyes, low brows and a small forehead, wrinkled skin and a more angular chin are seen as stronger, more dominant and more competent  Sometimes we infer attitudes that we assume an ind holds, just on the basis on their face  Through evolution humans are predetermined to respond to those with infantile features with great care because of maternal/paternal instinct  Leslie Zebrowitz: we associate infantile features with helplessness traits and then overgeneralize this expectation to baby-faced adults  Faces are seen as trustworthy if they look happy and untrustworthy if they look angry Situations: The Scripts of Life:  Each of us has present notions about certain types of situations – “scripts” that enable us to anticipate goals, behaviours and outcomes likely to occur in a particular setting o People who are familiar with scripts, events fall into place more quickly and easily  Scripts influence social perceptions in 2 ways: o We sometimes see what we expect to see in a particular situation o People know about social situations to explain the causes of human behaviour Behavioural Evidence:  People derive meaning from their observations by diving the continuous stream of human behaviour in discrete units  Mind perception – the process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects, including other people  People see inner qualities of mind in target objects that superficially resemble humans in their speed of movement  People perceive minds along 2 dimensions: o Agency (a target’s ability to plan and execute behaviour) o Experience (the capacity to feel pleasure, pain and other sensations) The Silent Language of Nonverbal Behaviour:  Behavioural cues are used not only to identify someone’s actions but also to determine his/her inner states  Nonverbal behaviour – silent language  We express emotions in ways that are innate and understood by people all over the world  People can reliably identify 6 emotions: happiness, fear, sadness, anger, surprise and disgust o Also possibly: shame, embarrassment, contempt and compassion  9% more accurate in judging faces from their own national, ethnic or regional groups indicating that we enjoy an “ingroup advantage”  “anger superiority affect” – people quicker to spot and slower to look away from angry faces in a crowd that faces with neutral and less threatening emotions  Insula was activated not only when they sniffed disgusting odour but also when they watched others sniffing it  Men and women with a youthful walking style – sway their hips, bend their knees, lift their feet and swing their arms are seen as happier and more powerful than those who walk slowly, take shorter steps and drag their feet  Eye contact or gaze also important o We are drawn in to another person’s direct gaze o People who eye quickly draw and then hold out attention increase arousal and activate key social areas of the brain and this sensitivity is present at birth  Men of high socio economic status more likely to touch women of a lower socio economic status – touching may be seen as form of dominance and control Distinguishing Truth from Deception:  Social perception – people try and hide/stretch truth about themselves  Face can communicate emotion but is easier to control than the hands/feet  People only 54% accurate in judging the truth and deception  2 problems: o Mismatch b/w the behavioural cues that actually signal deception and those used by perceivers to detect deception o People tend to assume that the way to spot a liar is o watch for signs of stress in his/her behaviour  Police officers better at detecting deception Attribution: From Elements to Dispositions:  Inner dispositions – stable characteristics such as personality traits, attitudes and abilities Attribution Theories:  The explanations to the causes of other people’s behaviour – attribution theory  Personal, situational attributions  Not understand the true causes of an event but to understand people’s perceptions of causality Jones’s Correspondent Inference Theory:  Each of us tries to understand other people by observing and analyzing their behaviour  Jones and Davis’s: correspondent inference theory – predicts that people try to infer from an action whether the act itself corresponds to an enduring personal characteristic of the actor  People make inferences on the basis of 3 factors: o Person’s degree of choice o Expectedness of behaviour o Intended effects or consequences of someone’s behaviour Kelley’s Covariation Theory:  Correspondent inference theory seeks to describe how perceivers try to discern an ind personal characteristics from a slice of behavioural evidence  Behaviour can be attributed to persona land situational factors  Causes of human behaviour can be derived only through experiments  Kelley: people make attributions by using the covariation principle – in order for something to be the cause of behaviour it must be present when the behaviour occurs and absent when it does not o Three kinds of covariation behaviour useful: consensus, distinctiveness and consistency  2 ways in which social perceivers differ: o Ind vary in the extent to which they believe that human behaviours are caused by personal characteristics that are fixed or malleable o Some individuals are more likely than others to process information in ways that are coloured by self-serving motivations *Insert figure 4.4 Attribution Biases:  We are limited in our ability to process all relevant information or we may lack the kinds of training needed to employ fully the principles of attribution theory Cognitive Heuristics:  Daniel Kanheman, Amos Tversky – people often make attrubutions and other types of social judgements by using cognitive heuristics: information-processing rules of thumb that enable us to think in ways that are quick and easy but frequently prone to error  Availability heuristic – tendency to estimate the odds that an event will occur by how easily instances of it pop to mind  2 issues with this: o False-consensus effect – tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions, attributes and behaviours (exaggerate percentage of others who share similar views)  We associate with others who are like us in important ways  People do NOT exhibit bias when asked to predict the behaviour of people from groups other than their own  Do not exhibit this bias when predicting aspects of others for which they see
More Less

Related notes for PSYB10H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.