Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYB10H3 (611)
Chapter 2

PSYB10 - Chapter 2.docx

6 Pages
110 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Connie Boudens

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Description
Chapter 2 PSYB10 Chapter 2 Doing Social Psychology Research Developing Ideas: Beginning the Research Process Asking Questions  Every social psychology study begins with a question  Can come from reading about research that has already done, news story, personal observation, folk wisdom etc. Searching the Literature  Once the question is formed, have to see what research has already been done on this topic and related topics  Electronic database of published research is best way to find this info  Researcher’s original questions is usually changed in one way or another during course of searching the literature o Becomes more precise and specific Hypotheses and Theories  Hypothesis: A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur o Formulated from the vague initial idea we may have for research  Once data is collected, the hypothesis becomes a theory  Theory: An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena  Theories are usually evaluated in terms of three criteria o Simplicity, comprehensiveness and their ability to generate new hypotheses (generativity)  Best theories are precise, encompass all relevant info and lead to new hypotheses, further research and better understanding  Social psychologists look at “mini – theories” that address limited and specific aspects of the way people behavior  Good theories should spark research in different aspects of theory Basic and Applied Research  Basic research: Research designed to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on a theory  Applied research: research designed to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events to find solutions to practical problems  Some researchers switch back and forth between the two Refining Ideas: Defining and Measuring Social Psychological Variables  Researchers always must decide how they will define and measure the variable in which they are interested Conceptual Variables and Operational Definitions: From the Abstract to the Specific  Conceptual variables: variables that are abstract when the hypothesis is initially developed o Example: Prejudice, conformity, attraction, love, violence, group pressure social anxiety  Operational definition: The specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual value o Example: defining conformity as the number of times a person agrees with other people even though the answer is wrong  There is no one best way to transform a variable from abstract (conceptual) to specific (operational) o Usually trial and error  There are some systematic ways of checking how valid various manipulations and measure are  Construct validity: The extent to which the measures used in a study measures the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate Measuring Variables: Using Self-Reports, Observations, and Technology  Two ways of measuring variables: self-report and observations Self-Reports: Going Straight to the Source  Participants disclose their thoughts, feelings, desires, and actions Chapter 2 PSYB10  Widely used  Consist of individual questions or set of questions that together measure a single conceptual variable  Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale – consists of questions that measures individuals’ overall self-esteem  Give researcher access to an individual’s beliefs and perceptions  Can be misleading and not always accurate since responses can be biased o Trying to make themselves look better than they are  Can be affected by the way that questions are asked (how they are worded or the context) o What questions are asked before some questions  Memories can be skewed, biased, unreliable o Scientists try to reduce the amount of time btw incident and self-report  Interval-contingent self reports: respondents report their experiences at regular intervals (once a day)  Signal – contingent: respondents report their experiences as soon as possible after being signaled to do so, usually by means of a beeper  Event-contingent: respondents report on a designated set of events as soon as possible after such events have occurred o Rochester Interaction record (RIR): event-cognitive self-report used to record every social interaction lasting ten minutes or more that occurs during course of study  Narrative studies: collect lengthy responses on a general topic o Can be generated by participants at the researcher’s request or taken from other sources o Diaries Observations  Observe a person’s actions  Can be simple (looking at a single response) or elaborate (like coding of narrative accounts)  Inter-rater reliability: The degree to which different observes agree on their observations o Level of agreement among multiple observers of the same behavior  Avoid bias and distorted interpretations of people’s own behavior  Sometimes behavior is skewed if they know they are being observed o Therefore researches sometimes make observations much more subtly Technology  Changes in heart rate, levels of particular hormones, sexual arousal all are measured using equipment’s and computers  Record speed with which participants respond to stimuli  Brain-imaging technologies take and combine thousands of images of the brain in action o fMRI provide researchers with visual images of activity in parts of the brain while the research participants is thinking, making decisions, responding to audio or visual stimuli o Show which parts of the brain “light up” during certain activities Testing Ideas: Research Designs  Qualitative research: the collection of data through open-ended responses, observation and interviews  Quantitative research: the collection of numerical data through objective testing and statistical analysis  Experimentation is the most preferred method to prove their ideas wrong Descriptive Research: Discovering Trends and Tendencies  Descriptive research: describe people and their thoughts, feelings and behaviors Observational Studies  Use hidden cameras and microphone to record occurrence of certain incidences  Ethics behind using hidden cameras to observe behavior o Questions of accuracy may arise especially when seen in TV shows, paparazzi and journalism Archival Studies  Involves examining existing records of past events and behaviors o Newspaper articles, medical records, diaries, sport statistics, personal ads, crime statistics, hits on web pages  Advantage of having someone there to observe behavior will not affect the behavior – source is from a natural setting Chapter 2 PSYB10  Limitation is that records are not always sufficient or detailed Surveys  Involves asking people questions about their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors  Can be conducted in person, over the phone, by mail or via the Internet  Many social psych questions can only be addressed with survey because they involve variables that are impossible or unethical to observe directly or manipulate o Sexual behaviors o Optimism in the future  There is a science to designing, conducting and interpreting the results to surveys o Test various kinds of wording and question ordering before conducting their surveys  Most important issue that survey researchers face is how to select the people who will take part in the survey o First: must identify the population in which they are interested  Random sampling: A method of selecting participant for a study so that everyone in the population has an equal chance of being in the study Correlational Research: Looking for Associations  Correlational research: Research designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher  Can be conducting using observational, archival or survey methods  Measure relationship between different variables  The extent to which variables relate to each other/correlate can suggest how similar or distinct two different measures are  Usually variables are not manipulated they are just measured Correlation Coefficient  Correlation coefficient: A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables  Can range from -1.0 to +1.0  Absolute value of the number indicated how strongly the two variables are associated  The larger the absolute value of the number, the stronger the association between the two variables and thus the better either of the variables is as a predictor of the other  Correlations obtained at a single point in time across a number of individuals is called concurrent Advantages and Disadvantages of Correlational Studies  Advantages: o It can study the associations of naturally occurring variables that cannot be manipulated or induced (gender, race, ethnicity and age) o Can examine phenomena that would be difficult or unethical to create for research purposes (love, hate, abuse) o Offers researchers freedom in where variables are measured (lab, real-w
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit