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Chapter 13

Chapter 13- Prosocial Behavior

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Chapter 13: Prosocial Behavior (Lecture 21) Why Do People Help? Prosocial behavior: any act performed w the goal of benefiting another person Altruism: desire to help another person, even if it involves a cost to the helper o Helping purely out of the desire to benefit someone else, w no benefit- but often a cost- to oneself Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and Genes [Darwin] theory of evolution, natural selection favors genes that promote the survival of the individual Any gene that furthers our survival and increases the probability that we will produce offspring is likely to be passed on from generation to generation Genes that lower our chances of survival, such as those that cause life- threatening diseases, reduce the chances that we will produce offspring and thus are less likely to be passed on Kin Selection Kin selection: idea that behavior that helps a genetic relative is favored by natural selection Ppl can increase the chances that their genes will be passed along not only by having their own children but also by ensuring that their genetic relatives have children bc a persons blood relatives share some of his her genes, the more that person ensures his her survival, the greater the chance that that persons genes will flourish in future generations natural selection should favor altruistic acts directed toward genetic relatives ppl reported that they would be more likely to help genetic relatives than non relatives in life- and death situations, such as a house fire ppl didnt report that they would be more likely to help genetic relatives when the situation was non- life threatening critical variable was the degree of closeness evolution may actually have created the tendency to help those who are close to us, rather than the tendency to help those who are related to us Reciprocity Norm norm of reciprocity: the expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future the idea is that as human beings were evolving, a group of completely selfish individuals, each living in his her own cave, would have found in more difficult to survive than a group who had learned to cooperate w one another if ppl cooperated to readily, they might have been exploited by an adversary who never helped in return 1 www.notesolution.com
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