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PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Key Terms

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 4 Personality Traits: Fundamental Concepts and Issues Personality traits refer to individual differences between people in characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Psychologists use trait concepts to account for consistencies in behaviour from one situation to the next. Act-frequency: - approach to personality. This view holds that traits are merely language categories for the organization of discrete behavioural acts. As such, traits do not influence behaviour per se but rather traits are the behaviours. Four positions of the nature of traits Traits are Description Neurophysiologica Traits are biological patternings in the central nervous system that l substrates causes behaviour to occur and account for the consistencies in Socioemotional functioning from one situation to the next and over time Behavioural Traits are tendencies to act, think or feel in consistent ways that dispositions interact with external influences, such as cultural norms and situational variables, to influence a persons functioning. Trait attributions can be used both to describe behaviour summaries and to suggest causal or generative mechanisms for behaviour Act frequencies Traits are descriptive summary categories for behavioural acts. Acts that have the same functional properties may be grouped together into families, with some acts being more prototypical or representative of the general family features than others Linguistic Traits are convenient fictions devised by people to categorize and categories make sense of the diversity of human behaviour and experience. Traits do not exist outside the mind of the observer, and therefore they can have no causal influence. Through social interaction and discourse, people construct meanings for trait terms Gordon Allport established personality psychology as a legitimate intellectual discipline and introduce done of the first modern trait theories traits are major structural units of personality, and as such, they account for consistency and coherence of human behaviour. He defined a trait as a neuropsychic structure having the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent and to initiate and guide equivalent forms of adaptive and expressive behaviour. Common trait: dimensions of human functioning upon which many different people are likely to differ Personal disposition: is a trait that is especially characteristic of a given individual and is therefore instrumental for depicting that individual persons uniqueness www.notesolution.com
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