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Chapter 3

Chapter 3.docx

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Connie Boudens

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Personality - Chapter 3 What's Missing From the Five Factors?  if we eliminate adjectives that descrive physical characteristics (short, beautiful, heavy), demographics (employed, unemployed), unusual behaviors (evil, cruel) and other adjectives not typically used to refer to personality, we have 10 possible candidates which are: 1. religious, devout, reverent 2. sly, deceptive, manipulative 3. honest, ethical, moral 4. sexy, sensual, erotic 5. thrifty, frugal, miserly 6. conservative, traditional, down-to-earth 7. masculine-feminine 8. egotistical, conceited, snobbish 9. humorous, witty, amusing 10. risk taking, thrill seeking Is Intelligence a Personality Trait?  maybe not. first, early studies of the big five defined openness as consisting of sophistication, artistic and intellectual interests and intelligence  other studies find that adjectives such as intelligent, knowledgeable and cultured load on a conscientiousness factor  second, when people rate themselves or a close friend on "intelligence" they are generally thinking of intelligent, rational and logical, clear-minded, mature - these are clearly different from cognitive ability  when people rate themselves on intelligence adjectives such as hardworking, smart, and knowledgeable, these end up loading on a conscientiousness factor and are not related to measured intelligence  third, there is evidence that there are individual differences in how people perceive and process information about the social world - some call this emotional intelligence Is Religiosity a Personality Trait?  religion has not occupied a central role in the study of personality  spiritual transcendence - ability of individuals to "stand outside of their immediate sense of time and place to view life from a larger, more objective perspective"  Piedmont designed the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS) - the scale has 3 facets: 1) Prayer Fulfillment, feelings of joy and contentedness from connection with transcendent; 2) Universality, seeing humanity as a single interrelated whole such that harming one harms all 3) Connectedness, feeling belongingness to and social responsibility and gratitude for, others across generations and across social groups 1 Personality - Chapter 3  spiritual transcendence is a dimension of personality separate from the five factors of personality  scores on the STS predicted scores on measures of life outcomes beyond the five factors  spiritual transcendence and personality together predicted scores on locus of control beliefs for health issues, vulnerability to stress, responsiveness to others, perceived social support, prosocial behavior, positive sexual attitudes and prochoice and prolife attitudes toward abortion Is Sexuality a Personality Trait?  Schmitt and Buss found 7 sexuality factors referred to as the Sexy Seven:  sexual attractiveness (ex: sexy, stunning, attractive)  relationship exclusivity (ex: faithful, monogamous)  gender orientation (ex: feminine, womanly, manly, masculine)  sexual restraint (ex: virginal, celibate, chaste)  erotophilic disposition (ex: obscene, vulgar, lewd)  emotional investment (ex: loving, romantic, compassionate)  sexual orientation  Schmitt and Buss discovered that the sexuality factors overlap almost 80% with the five factors, suggesting that they're not separate factors  because sexuality can be accounted for by a combination of factors and facets of the five factors sexuality is not a separate personality trait  sexuality is along with musical tastes, room decorating and handshaking - another way in which we express traits of OCEAN Indigenous Personality: Unique Personality Traits?  because the 5 factor taxonomy relies on measures that were validated in mostly American samples, even if they adequately explain personality in another culture, it is possible that we may have missed personality traits that are unique to that culture  for the Chinese, filial piety is a desirable personality trait, and is much more than obeying and honoring one's parents  amae characterizes relationships between people of lower and higher status, in addition to the relationship between parents and children  these indigenous personality traits lie beyond the five factors The Five Factors in Other Cultures  how do we go about applying the five-factor taxonomy to other cultures? there are 5 main findings: 2 Personality - Chapter 3 1. Questionnaire measures of the five-factor model reliably replicate across many cultures and languages. the question based NEO-PI-R, when translated and then carefully back-translated to ensure that the items are comparable - there is considerable evidence that the FMM dimensions are in fact universally applicable - FMM has been tested and validated in over 50 countries 2. Adjectival measures of the Big Five reveal variations of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness but not Openness in many different cultures 3. Openness varies across cultures. - this is because - for the lexical Big Five model openness is defined as intellect and imagination but for the five-factor model this factor is openness to experience. lexical models find openness to be language and culture specific - because the openness factor does not consistently appear in other languages it may be that this factor, though it exists cross-culturally, is defined differently in ways unique to a specific culture 4. In some cultures more than five factors are needed to fully describe personality. 5. We need more research on indigenous personality to truly see which aspects of personality are universal and which are unique to a culture. Personality Traits Cross-Culturally: Personality Traits in China  Cheung developed the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) by using a sort of lexical approach by identifying descriptions of Chinese personality from literature, proverbs, surveys and previous research - this led to the identification of 10 trait clusters unique to the Chinese personality and not covered by Western personality inventories:  harmony  Ren Qing (traditional relationship orientation emphasizing give and take and connectedness)  modernization  thrift (vs. extravagance)  Ah-Q mentality (defensiveness)  graciousness veracisousness-slickness (trustworthiness)  face (reputation, social approval)  family orientation  somatization (expression of distress via physical symptoms)  4 factors emerged: dependability, Chinese tradition, social potency, and individualism  Cheung conducted a follow - up study and found 6 factors: 5 from the five-factor model plus an indigenous personality factor called interpersonal relatedness - made up from harmony, ren qing, and face 3 Personality - Chapter 3 Research Methods Illustrated: Triangulation and Types of Data  process of using multiple methods within a single program of research is called triangulation - each method compensates for the weakness of the others  4 kinds of data that a personality psychologist might collect  self-report data (S data) - objective personality tests, interviews, narratives, life stores and survey research  test data (T data) - place a person in controlled situations that test them to see how they respond - ex: intelligence tests, task persistence, and reaction times  observation data (O data) - watching people in the laboratory or in their daily lives, or coding behavior from photos or videos - information from knowledgeable informants including friends, spouses, parents, children, teachers, interviewers - problem of potential bias or memory problems in self-reports  life data (L data) - track down information about a person that is publicly available  together these four methods spell out LOTS - should remind us to include lots of sources of data in our study Expression of Traits in Everyday Life Personality Traits of Presidents  compared to the U.S population at large, presidents tend to be more extraverted, less open to experience, and less agreeable  they score higher than the general population on the facets of achievement striving (conscientiousness), and emotionality (openness), but lower on psychological liberalism (openness), morality (agreeableness) and modesty (agreeableness)  presidents who are rated as truly great tend to be higher in openness than the average person - openness is moderately related to general cognitive ability, suggesting that great presidents are smarter than average  they are aware of their feelings and are imaginative and more interested in art
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