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Chapter 12

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

ICARUS: AN ANCIENT STORY  What i get o Murray’s retelling of Grope’s life-story in the form of the story of Icarus illustrates how psychologists take not only a paradigmatic approach to explaining life-stories but also a narrative approach that involves analogizing one’s life to the events that play out in a myth (Icarus).  Themes – urethral erotism, ascensionism, cynosural narcissism, and falling/precipitation PERSONOLOGY AND THE STUDY OF LIVES MURRAY AND THE HARVARD PSYCHOLOGICAL CLINIC  What i get o Before Murray came to the Harvard Psychological Clinic, Morton Prince had used it to teach abnormal psychology and provided demonstrations via hypnosis as to how symptoms plagued many patients. o Murray  put the person at the center of inquiry. He formed the Diagnostic Council....what were they responsible for?..pg481  became interested in analyzing the complexity of the human by incorporating scholars from multiple disciplines. His approach what counter to the focus of American psychology.  conceived an agenda referred to as personology, which is the psychology of persons. It was study what we see in a person when we look at them.  believed that personality is like Congress or a household in that many characters are found and take center stage at certain points of a person’s life. o Human lives are situated in time in that we can only understand the person if we look at the past and how it led to the present. o What are proceedings? Durances? Serials? Serial programs? Unity thema?...pg.483-484 THE PERSONOLOGICAL TRADITION  What i get o What are the six general principles of Murray’s personological approach?..pg485  1. Personology and its investigator is shaped by various forces  2. Personology is a life-long enterprise  3. Personology focuses on the study of mental life (unconscious or conscious) and creativity  4. Personology requires a multidisciplinary approach, as well as special strategies and techniques of investigation  5. Personology uses living, historical, fictional, and mythological figures to account for one’s life in progress  6. Personology seeks to investigate concerns and social issues and their impact on human life o According to White, what constituted mature personality development?...pg487 SCIENCE AND THE SINGLE CASE  What i get o The case study is one avenue of observing the whole person and understanding personality. They are used for multiple purposes in personality psychology...what are some uses?...pg488 o Criticisms of case study use  Case studies are not reliable in that two experts with the same qualitative data may not agree with each other’s conclusions  Both are faced with the task of making interpretations based on qualitative data that has no means of being converted into quantitative form  Case studies are not limited to qualitative analysis and may employ quantitative measures or content analysis that converts qualitative data (interview) into quantitative (PSE score on n Ach). The consequence of the latter is the lost richness of the info.  Internal coherence  Psychologists often employ explanations for a single case study after the facts have been presented (post hoc). It is hard to get around making these types of explanations because many experiences can only be explained through case studies  Pattern-matching plans are used in order to help orient the personologist toward a single interpretation by
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