Textbook Notes (368,252)
Canada (161,740)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB30H3 (485)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 .docx

9 Pages
36 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Kira A Borden
Semester
Summer

Description
2: Personality Traits: A good theory Behavioural residue: physical traces left behind by everyday actions are hints or cues to the personality of the occupant. What is a personality Trait o Traits describe a person’s typical style of thinking, feeling and acting in different kinds of situations and at different times o Persistent ways of acting and reacting are captured by the concept of traits o Temporary states (emotions), attitudes (liberal or conservatives), and physical attributes (short, muscular) are not considered personality traits o Traits are measured over a continuum  Continuum that is in a continuous stretch, from low to high  EX: if a person who score high on a particular trait say talkativeness, are more likely to strike up a conversation with a stranger than a person who is low on talkativeness o Traits cannot be directly measured in the same way that say height and weight can, psychologist think of traits as hypothetical concepts o Traits exist even thought we cant see them o Psychologist view traits- descriptive summary of behavior without thinking about where they came from or why a person acts that way o Other psychologist view trait as internal causal properties Two Approaches to the study of Personality Traits o Idiographic approach- the goal to understand the personality of a single individual with all of his or her quirks or idiosyncrasies and characteristics that make them unique o Nomothetic Approach- the goal is to discover universals, concepts that can apple to everyone by identifying traits that can describe all people or that can be applied to any person o Allport – started the battle between the idiographic and Nomothetic approach o The idiographic approach uses many variables to describe the personality of a single individual in great detail. o Allport cautioned that individuality cannot be studied by science yet he recognized a place for the study of the individual within psychology o Hans Eysenck took up Allport’s challenge and found a way of reconciling these two seemingly different approaches to the study of human personality  Human personality is organized into a hierarchy which can be think of as a pyramid  Pyramid categories human personality from the most general level at the top to the most specific level at the bottom  Bottom- specific behaviors including responses, acts cognitions, reactions of everyday life  If a reaction occurs again – the response have become a habit or a typical way of responding  If a certain habit occur overtime- the person is exhibiting a personality trait  If a certain trait tend to occur together in people – we have identified a personality type “ observed constellation of traits” (term by EYSECK’S WORD)  The lower we go in pyramid the more idiosyncratic our reactions are What Do we know about Personality from the Idiographic Approach o Studying individual Personalities: The idiographic Approach Allport identified three different kinds of traits: central traits, secondary traits, cardinal traits Central Traits: are traits that are of major importance in understanding the person o Traits that people who know you might mention in your letter of recommendation  Secondary Traits: are traits of lesser importance, less consistently displayed or seldom displaced or only slightly revealed so that only a very close friend might notice them  Cardinal traits: a person may have one and only one trait that describes him or her, traits are so pervasive and extremely influential that practically every aspect of a person’s life is touched by this ruling passion or master sentiment  EX: Don Juan, snow white seven little friends  Occurrence of cardinal trait is unusually, when if it does occur we name the individual a celebrity o The idiographic Approach Applied: The case of Jenny  Allport had the unique opportunity to apply the idiographic approach to a real person Jenny  Jenny Gove Masterson was a pseudonym for a woman who wrote a detailed correspondence to two friends over a period of 10 years  Her husband passed away leaving jenny a single mother to fend for herself and baby Ross far away from her native country  Ross became the center of his mother’s life was an understatement and this led to a tension between the mother and son when Ross was an adult  Jenny wrote letters to Ross girl friend and his friend  Allport used 198 traits terms then arranged clusters of related words: quarrelsome-suspicious, self-centered, independent- autonomous, dramatics-intense, aesthetic-artistic What do we know about Personality from the Nomothetic Approach? o The Nomothetic Approach  The nomothetic approach seek to identify the basic traits that make up the human personality  There are at least three different ways to identify the most meaningful and applicable words to describe personality  Researchers use a combination of the theoretical approach, the lexical approach, and the measurement approach o The Theoretical approach: personality psychologist start with a theory or even common wisdom about human personality. o Carl Jung hypothesized that people differ in how they evaluate information, either rationally what he called the thinking function or through emotions o Jung spoke of at least two types of personality feeling types and thinking types o Oral personality who is overly dependent or anal personality who is incredibly organized and uptight o The Lexical Approach: to personality traits explores a particular language and identifies the number of synonyms that describe personality. o A concept is important to speakers of a language then that concept will be encoded in their language in multiple ways o EX: describing what your loved ones and neighbor are like is very relevant and useful so crucial individuals differences have become encoded in language o The Measurement Approach: important aspects of personality and trying to measure personality called the measurement approach o Focus on developing the best questionaries’ and measurement techniques apart from a theoretical context o One way of doing this is to use mathematical and statistical techniques such as factor analysis to see if the various trait terms cluster together in some way o Raymond Cattell started with 4504 trait terms identified by Allport and Odbert o Theoretical, lexical, measurement = to identify and organize personality traits Research Methods Illustrated: Factor Analysis o Factor Analysis: is a statistical technique that mathematically identifies a meaningful underlying structure among a set of variable o How do we know some questions go together? We look at correlations among all of the questions in our data o Recall that correlations ® represents the strength of a relationship between two variables with larger numbers indicating that two variables are highly related o The sign R tells us that the two variables are either directly related (positive) or inversely related (negative) o Each factor explain a certain amount of variation called variance in answers between participants which is called eigenvalue of the factor o From eigenvalue we calculate factor loading which is an estimated of how strongly each questions fits into a given factor o When we do factor an
More Less

Related notes for PSYB30H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit